Thoughts on dialectics
In the previous articles we have acquainted with a basic structure of the material universe. Now let us view the laws that govern it. Our approach here is alternative too. First, we will review Hegel’s laws of dialectics from a position of four major substance division in the multiverse. We will not deny these laws – they will be present in four laws of a universe, which we shall consider further. But our approach looks more logical, concrete and simple. The main thing is – it will allow us to see what Hegel did not see: first it has to do with the law of cyclic (cyclisity) and the theory of time.
MOTION – the first and all-encompassing law of the multiverse, manifesting itself as the property of matter and energy to continuously change their location in space.
Motion is the first and main all-encompassing law of the multiverse. It means that every particle of matter in universe, every material body always and constantly changes its location in space not stopping for a second. A galaxy moves in the universe, the universe itself continuously changes its space characteristics, the solar system moves inside the galaxy, our planet moves around the Sun, and every material particle within any material body, whatever the size, is in continuous motion.
Motion is the first of the basic laws of the universe exactly because of that reason: each and every elementary particle of matter in the universe is continuously in the state of changing its position in space. The basis foundation to any change, prime cause to any development in the universe, is the single act of motion of material elementary particle. Only the motion gives birth to any change. The motion of material elementary particles is the primary cause to all changes in the universe and to all of its laws.
Motion precedes development and causes it as well. There is no development without the motion. All that doesn’t need any commentary.
The second all-encompassing law of the multiverse is the law of development.
DEVELOPMENT – second all-encompassing law of the multiverse means that any material phenomenon of the multiverse, at any moment of time, is in the process of turning into another phenomenon, that would negate the previous one. Development is a sequence of changes.
For example, a poor person, going through the stages of development, might turn into a rich person (or destitute one). The richness negates poorness (being destitute negates poorness as well). The rich person, developing, becomes very rich. The idea of “very rich” negates the “rich” idea, and so forth.
The law of development is based on the law of motion. One could imagine the elementary development in the following way: an elementary particle of matter moves a certain unit of distance in space. As a result, an elementary particle of matter has changed:
- the speed of forward motion has changed,
- its energy characteristics changed,
- its mass changed,
- its space characteristics changed,
- its interaction with other surrounding elementary particles of matter and with material bodies changed,
These changes make elementary particles different. In other words, if a particle of matter, at given moment of time, at the given point of space, was one phenomenon, then after a single act of motion it becomes another phenomenon
This another phenomenon negates the existence of the first one. A moment ago a material particle has been one phenomenon. It has had certain characteristics: mass, structure, density of matter, amount of energy, position in space, interaction with other material bodies and particles. Then, as a result of a singular act of motion, this particular phenomenon as a given phenomenon, ceased to exist. To be exact, it has turned into another phenomenon. The remaining phenomenon has an extremely similar, but another structure with other mass and density of matter with the previous one. It differs in a quantity of energy; a position is space, and other an interaction with material particles.
It is the same elementary particle of matter that had different characteristics a moment ago. But the change has occurred to it, so it has developed. We see two different phenomena that represent one and the same material particle in the process of development. The latest phenomenon (“latest” elementary particle) negates the earlier phenomenon (“earlier” particle) at the given moment of time.
Here is the essence of the development process: at every subsequent moment of its motion, every phenomenon in the multiverse changes and turns into another phenomenon, which negates its existence in the previous variant.
So, the motion of matter is at the basis of all phenomena development in the material universe. been motionless on the same place for centuries, Mona Lisa smile or a baby smile, the Earth in space of our galaxy, or the galaxy in open spaces of the universe, each of these material phenomena, the next moment, will be developed and become an other phenomenon as a result of the movement.
At this point, let us get clear with what are phenomenon and counter–phenomenon.
Any material phenomenon consists of a finite number of structural units. For instance, there is a definite amount of atoms, molecules and elementary particles in any particular physical body. If a material phenomenon occurs where other material phenomena interact, then it means there is a definite sequence of actions, which is comprised of definite structural units – actions as well. Not necessarily that these structural units to be identical like twins. For instance: material phenomenon “forest” is made of structural elements: trees. They all seem to be equal to each other: tree = tree = tree = … = tree, but each and every tree in the forest is particularly and inimitable one.
Let us name the structural element of a material phenomenon as a phenomenon basis point (PBP). The PBP in our forest are every tree of that forest, every shrub, every stalk of grass, every piece of moss, etc. Each PBP is as unique as every tree or shrub in a forest.
In a more narrow sense, PBP is a single bit of information from all sum total of information about a material phenomenon.
The whole complex of PBPs of a material phenomenon characterizes all aspects of the phenomenon existence: mass, structure, energy characteristics, interaction with other material phenomena, interaction among PBPs, position in space, etc.
The entire complex of phenomenon basis points defines the uniqueness of that phenomenon in the universe at every moment of time.
If a single PBP changes, we would get another phenomenon. “You cannot enter the same river twice,” so to speak. Even if the river remains the same, the very next moment the river be different. Its PBPs, that characterize positions of water molecules in space, have changed. Each and every moment the material phenomenon of “a river” turns into the counter-phenomenon – “the other river”. A moment later, this counter-phenomenon turns into a counter-phenomenon of its own “another river of this other river”, and so forth.
As we can see here, every subsequent moment of time every material phenomenon turns into counter-phenomena, negating itself in previous version. At the same time both: phenomenon and counter-phenomenon should have at least one common and one differing PBP.
It’s necessary to emphasize: the phenomenon and counter-phenomenon should necessarily have both the common basis points, and differing basis points.
COUNTER-PHENOMENON to a given phenomenon is another phenomenon, which has at least one common PBP and at least one differing PBP with the initial one.
Phenomena that have not a common PBP are ANTI – PHENOMENA concerning each other.
Look around, and you would see large amount of events that are in “phenomenon – counter-phenomenon” relation. All forests that exist are counter-phenomena to each other. All rivers are counter-phenomena to each other. However, any forest would be an anti-phenomenon to any river.
Globally, all material phenomena in the universe are counter-phenomenal to each other. The presence of a material elementary particle – common phenomenon basis points – makes them so. In order to avoid a mess, by the definition of “phenomenon” we only consider the essence of material phenomena – the same definitions as are given in dictionaries.
The third all-encompassing law of the multiverse is defined by the second one; it’s the law of determinism. We have the following definition:
Nothing in the multiverse happens by chance; any phenomenon of the universe, any interaction is strictly determined by cause-and-effect links. Any event of the multiverse is the effect of another event, and the cause to a third one.
Motion defines development. And this development is not a random act of a capricious Nature. At first: motion always has strict direction. For example, a direction of an atom motion in space is defined by its interaction with other atoms, material particles, stars, planets, by speed of its forward and rotary motion, mass, resistance of surrounding environment, etc. That is to say: the motion direction in space, the velocity and other characteristics of our atom always are defined by some definite causes.
If we look closely, we would see that the cause is always some other phenomenon. In our case, it’s “the influence of every surrounding atom”, “the mass of a nearest star”, “the mass and mutual positioning of surrounding planets”, “the atomic mass”, “the speed of the galaxy in the space of the universe”, and many other phenomena.
Evidently, an act as simple as a singular motion of atom in space has great number of causes in its basic. Every cause necessarily brings its own mite to the characteristics of phenomena. I.e.: where to, in what state, to what value, when… our atom will move.
Any phenomenon in multiverse that has any share upon influences to other phenomenon is always the CAUSE to it, and defines the specific direction of its development (proportional to the degree of its influence). Nothing happens by chance in multiverse. All events in multiverse are strictly are predetermined by cause-and-effect links.
The law of determinism is the logical conclusion of both previous laws: motion and development:
- All changes that occur in the material universe have the motion of matter and energy in its basis.
- The sequence of changes is the development.
- The development is always has a direction, strictly defined by cause-and-effect links.
Every material phenomenon of the multiverse is made up of elementary particles. Their amount is tremendous. Every one of them is ”a mini-phenomenon” inside this material phenomenon with its own cause-and-effect links. Besides, the development of each phenomenon depends on a great amount of causes. We now reach the idea of “poly-functionality” of determinism. It means that every phenomenon in the multiverse is the effect of a large amount of other phenomena and is the cause to many other third tier events. At that, the bigger the phenomenon, the larger is the number to which it is the cause and effect.
The notion of “determinism” is oppose to the notion of “indeterminism”, that implies the presence of vagueness, fortuity, that can define a development of events. Strangely enough, these ideas are widely spread. More over they even govern modern science. These views came into existence due to the science inability to explain a quite wide spectrum of events in nature.
The indeterministic concept explains that there is a definite material effect independent of definite material causes. But that really brings us to the idea of divine: the phenomena exist in nature without whole succession of events determining the existence of these phenomena. That is makes the effect independent of its cause, and leaves the cause without any effect. It’s fantastic! The science has arisen, first of all, on the basis of denying divinity of the phenomena, to find material explanation of occurring changes, without participation of someone’s “intention”. To deny itself …
We do not deny the idea of indeterminism. However, the idea has another meaning that is accepted by science. Accident here – is well disguised regularity. The indeterminism here is a display of interaction between material and non-material principles of multiverce, which the modern science, naturally, denies. Alas, the science has not grown yet to idea of non-material the phenomena.
To understand the fourth law of the universe, it is necessary for us to consider such concept as a problem. Dictionaries define a problem as a task in need of a solution. On reality problems might have more than one solution. Really, it’s like this: for example, a person faces multitude of problems everyday which he is compelled to solve. And which he eventually resolves, getting headaches, sleepless night…
But all of it: headaches, sleepless night, etceteras, presence of problems could be avoided if only one could understand: that there are no problems in multiverse that have more than one solution. Philosophically speaking, a problem is a task that has only one solution, only one direction of development defined by its cause-and-effect links.
Such narrow definition of a problem contradicts a standard understanding of this word: the problem should have many solutions. For instance, let us take a problem “to go to work”. It has the following: it is possible to go to work by car or by tram, it is possible to go to work one a way or another, it is possible to go to the opposite side, and having rounded the globe, to come to the place of destination. But actually, all these decisions – are resolutions of other problems: «to go to work by car», «to go to work by tram», «to go to work along that road», «to go to work, having rounded the globe».
The mistake here is in wrong statement of the problem. The multitude of decisions of a problem – is the consequence person’s inability to see a problem « as it is »: to see all its cause – and – effect links, to find the single logical continuation of the development of this problem, and it’s the only true solution. Any problem, actually, has only one solution caused by cause – and – effect links of the given phenomenon. Other vision of a problem – with multitude of solutions – is the subjective idea invented by man. The solution of a problem is always only one, and it is defined by this problem.
And how the person was tormented, solving this problem, actually he does not solve it. He really tries to find the causally – and – effect links of development of the phenomenon and to determine the logical continuation of this development. And as soon as it is possible to him, the person becomes the reason in relation to the phenomenon, in relation to the problem. In the case with our wanderer it will look so:
The person goes to work each day by tram. He leaves his house and stops: the garage with a car is on the left, the tram stop is on the right, the short cut on foot is in front of him. Let us imagine, that he forgets just, for one instant, how he always gets to his work. The problem has arised. But it is solved unequivocally: memory comes back to him and the person resolutely turns towards the tram stop. Because this problem is called: « to go to work by tram » – he never goes for work by car, and not go on foot …
The problem is the stalled development. That is: the problem arises only then and only there where the development stops. Stop the development of any phenomenon, and you will receive a problem. In our case, if our wanderer does not stop, and at once continues his movement, in this case no problem would arise.
PROBLEM – is a state of phenomenon in physical universe that occur the moment development stops; it has only one logical cause-and-effect defined solution – direction of development.
The idea of problem is always accompanied by counter-problem idea.
COUNTER-PROBLEM – is a counterbalance to a given problem – another problem that has at least one common feature with the given one, and at least one differing feature as well.
For example, a problem “еeating the cereals” has counter-problems:
- Not to eat the cereals.
- Sprinkle some sugar on it and then eat.
- Give it to a pet.
- Throw the cereals away.
- Eating it later.
- Eating a hamburger.
These counter-problems have, as minimum, one common characteristic with our problem: either the cereals, or the fact of eating. And not less than one difference. At the same time, the problems:
- “throw the cutlet away”
- “give the cutlet to a dog”
are not counter-problems to “eating the cereals” problem. These are problem – antipodes to the problem “eating the cereals”. In this problems there isn’t any fact of ”eating” or the world “cereals”.
4. DEVELOPMENT CYCLE.
So, we have considered the first three fundamental laws of the multiverse. It is not necessary to be especially attentive to see, that, basically they repeat Hegel’s laws of dialectics. But our concept allows us to see one more fundamental law of the multiverse – cyclical development, privately recognized by philosophers in an unofficial. We shall consider it.
CYCLYCAL DEVELOPMENT – is the fourth all-encompassing law of the multiverse. It runs: As they exist, all phenomena of the universe many times repeat the same cycle of development of its main quality, which define the existence of the phenomenon itself.
If there is a development cycle, it means that it periodically repeats itself. That is: phenomenon appears, develops in the given direction, and finishes development. Then: follows the stop and everything starts anew. But the suspension in a development means appearance of a problem. That is why every development could be presented as a process of problem solving: phenomenon turns into counter-phenomenon once a problem arises.
There is no development without a problem. For instance, financial development (transformation the phenomenon «poor man» – into the phenomenon «rich man») could be imagined as a solution to one problem: “wealth accumulation”. Transformation of a poor man into a destitute could be imagined as a problem solution of “poor man impoverishment”. Take these problems away, and we will get no changes at all. He remains poor, developing neither to the rich, nor to the impoverished. Who put these problems and why it is a different matter. But the development is always a process of solution of some problem.
We have already supposed that development occurs by cycles, therefore a transforming process of the poor man into a rich man can be imagined as a repeating single cycle of development. The problem of this cycle is “wealth accumulation”. Our poor man finds some «know-how», thinks a great financial plan, implements it and starts to grow rich.
But the person needs these riches for a definite purpose (dream). He wants to become superrich, or the way of “a rich-man life” can please him, or thus he can climb to power, or he just wants to sweep in a smart limousine before the girl which once rejected his love. In any case, once he starts to become rich, his dream comes closer to becoming true. This dream is a counter-problem to his initial problem.
As the man becomes richer, his dream becomes more real – the counter-problem starts to ripen. This counter-problem: “accumulation of super-wealth”, or “to have a rich-man of life”, or “transformation of riches into power”, etc. And the closer he will come nearer to riches, his dream becomes more real – the counter-problem ripens more and more.
Finally, our poor man finishes his financial operation, having obtained a lot of money. The problem “wealth accumulation” is completely solved. But the counter-problem also has completely ripened: now he is ready to start realizing his dream. So our newly-made rich-man starts to solve a counter-problem.
Eventually, he will also solve it. He will spend his riches for its implamentation of his dream – to solve the counter-problem. In the first case, he will spend the money to advertising, development and modernization of the manufacture, new technologies and so on. The counter-problem «accumulation of super-wealth» will be solved successfully. But for realization all this, he should have to work long and hard; he should have to repeat the cycle of wealth accumulation. Again and again to solve a problem – a counter- problem .
In the second case our newly-made rich-man buys the smart house, a villa, a yacht and other things. Of cause, his riches start to decrease. And the more luxuriously he lives, the less money is left. Soon he should perform one again the same financial operation to continue such the of life. Here we also see the birth and the development of that very problem, right from the moment, when the counter-problem starts to be resolved.
Our newly-made rich-man, certainly, might become poor again. But we shall see here an other counter-problem: ”squandering of wealth”, following the above logics. Risky financial enterprises, where our person will invest, silly purchases, gamblings and other things – will be the process of resolving of this counter-problem. It is unimportant, that our hero wanted to grow more and more rich, or to lead the corresponding way of life: all his acts, all his activity actually will be directed to the resolution of the counter-problem “squandering of wealth”.
Any development is cyclical and has the following stages:
- Presence of a problem – the “engine” of the development.
- Process of problem-solving. Simultaneous birth and formation of a counter-problem.
- Moment of a complete resolution of a problem and the end of a counter-problem formation.
- Counter-problem solution process. At the same time, the birth of a problem on a higher level.
- Moment of a complete resolution of a counter-problem and a complete formation of a problem (at another higher level).
Development cycle is the law mandatory to all developments of any phenomenon in the multiverse.
There is a problem at the beginning of a single cycle of any phenomenon development. Problem is the engine to the first phase of a cycle development. It is solved in this phase of a cycle. Simultaneously, a problem becomes smaller and a counter-problem appears. After the phase is over, a problem completely disappears, and a counter-problem becomes fully ripe. Counter-problem is the engine to the next phase of development. At the end of it, a counter-problem turns into the initial problem (at higher level). The cycle starts anew.
We may take a look on another phenomenon, other cycle of a development. For example, a person sits down to have a lunch. . It means that he sits down a table to resolve the problem: “to consume food”. He takes a spoon and starts to eat. The problem solving begins from this very moment. But with the first eaten spoon this problem has decreased on the quantity this spoon. This first eaten spoon of a food already has satisfied his famine partially – in volume of this eaten spoon. And has engendered a new problem – the countor-problem to the given problem: “not consume food”. And the problem will decreases with each eaten spoon, but accordingly its countor-problem will increase.
At last, a person finishes his lunch. The problem is completely solved. But, at once, the counter-problem “not consume food” has completely ripened – he is full. And this counter-problem – “not consume food” – a person starts to solve from this moment. He solves it all time that it left: both when he sleeps, and when he works, plays football, is engaged with children … He not consumes a food all that time.
But, at once the beginning of resolving of the counter-problem, the problem starts to form again. The organism starts to assimilate a food: gastric juice splits it on nutrients, blood carries them to cells, cells spend energy, and processes of a metabolism start. The need for new consuming of food again starts to appear. And this problem will completely be formed in a few hours’ time. And, as soon as this person will sit down to a lunch table, it will mean the full end of the resolving the counter-problem “not consume food” and the start of the solving of a problem “to consume food”.
We could view the whole human existence as the simultaneous solution large amount of “problem – counter-problem” pairs: “to breathe – to not breathe”, “see that – to not see that”, “to hear that – to not hear that”, “to go there – to not go there”, “to sit on something – to not sit on something” and so on … A person solves these problems during his life and, in that way, develops.
“Problem – counter-problem” pair is the engine to any development. Without this pair, there is no development.
As we have considered above, every problem has many counter-problems. But always there is one, main problem for the phenomenon (determining the development and existence of the given phenomenon), with only one counter-problem (which will be logical consequence of development of the given problem).
Problem – counter-problem make a pair, which defines an existence of the phenomenon in the multiverse itself. At the same time, this pair is the engine of the development cycle of this phenomenon. The pair “problem – counter-problem” is unique and defines the uniqueness of the phenomenon itself.
In the example with lunch we have considered the development of the phenomenon “there is supply of energy to an organism by assimilation of nutritious chemical substances”. The very existence of this phenomenon is defined by existence of a problem – counter-problem pair “to consume food” – “not consume food”. There is only one counter-problem: « not consume food », which conforms to the problem « to consume food » here. Any of other counter-problems will not be logical consequence of the given problem. After the person has eaten this food, he can not « to throw it away », neither « give it to a pet », nor « sprinkle some sugar on it and then eat » … Even if the person died after he has eaten the food, it will be logic continuation of the development of other problem: “to consume the poisoned food”. Take away a problem – counter-problem pair, and the phenomenon is gone. If, for example, the organism’s functions are based on the solar energy, we shall receive completely other phenomenon: “t0 supply an organism with a solar energy », with another a problem – pair: “accepting solar radiation” – “not accepting solar radiation”.
A problem – counter-problem pair is “backbone” – base of a phenomenon existence. It is important to define this pair, the main pair among others of lesser importance problem – counter-problem pairs. The phenomenon arises at the moment of origin of this pair: “problem – counter-problem”. And disappears also together with its disappearance. The cycle of existence and development of pair problem – counter-problem is a cycle of the existence of the phenomenon itself.
Explanation: the pair problem – counter-problem itself is like all phenomena of multiversy continuously, changes and develops. Problem and counter-problem has at least one common feature and one differing feature. When pair appears there is only one differing feature. All other characteristics are the same. For example, sexual differentiation becomes possible when some cells started to merge before dividing. In all other respects, these cells were identical to others.
From the moment of its creation, problem – counter-problem pair strives to increaseе the amount of differing features. Eventually, the pair would have one or few remaining common features. It would be the middle phase in the development cycle of the pair problem – counter-problem” the middle of the phenomenon life. Starting there, the reverse process starts: less and less differing characteristics remain. At the last moment of the problem – counter-problem pair existence, only one differing feature remains.
After the moment, when the last differing feature disappears, the pair problem – counter-problem ceases to exist, and accordingly the phenomenon itself ceases its existence.
If we take a look at the whole picture, it would become obvious that in its dynamics, development of a pair problem – counter-problem represents a circle – a cycle. It has only one differing feature at the beginning and at the end of a cycle; there is only one common characteristic in the middle of the cycle. If a single cycle of phenomenon’s development, considered earlier, represents a coil of a primary spiral of the development, then the development cycle of a problem – counter-problem pair of this phenomenon, represents a coil of a secondary spiral of the development.
Thus, the secondary spiral is an axis directing development of the phenomenon. Where a coils of a primary spiral of the development reels on the axis of a secondary spiral of the development. At the moment, when this axis disappears: the pair “a problem – counter-problem” stops to exist, the phenomenon stops its existence too.
We see precise orientation of the primary spiral of the development, for which main directing force is the secondary spiral. Over and over again, the phenomenon repeats the cycle of the primary spiral development. At that, the pair problem – counter-problem changes slightly its characteristics every time. Just in this way coils of the primary spiral are reeled up around of a secondary spiral.
A stone is lying by a road many years, until it turns into dust. What cycle does it go through and what are the moving forces at the basis of the stone’s existence? The stone exists as a phenomenon, which we could label as “a hard, irregular-shaped conglomerate of various chemical elements and compounds”. Its problem – counter-problem pair could be defined as: “interaction between the stone’s chemical elements and surrounding environment’s ” – “destruction of the stone as a result of this interaction”. The pair appeared at that moment, when the stone was formed. Before that, it was a part of rock formation, which was undergoing its cycle of development.
At night the stone is cooled. At result, it compresses. During the day the stone is warmed up under the scorching beams of the sun and expands. It is the first influence factor. As a result – microcracks appears, what is the fact of the beginning the stone’s destruction. Then the water enters into the action. It appears while only as a condensate from the air (rain drops can not yet permeate into microcracks – they are small too). That is, there was a change in the pair a problem – counter-problem: the new factor of influence was added. Then are comes into operation the rain drops, then acid rains, then a wind … As we see, the differences between a problem and counter-problem becomes more and more. But at one moment the growth of quantity of new destroying factors stops and their decrease begins. The stone crumbled away to fine grains, the wind dispersed them into cracks and stopped the influence. Acid rains dissolved all soluble chemical substances in these grains and stopped the action. Rain drops are too big to permeate into grains, and have stopped the action. The last moment of the phenomenon “stone” existence will be the moment of the influence termination of last destructive factor. It will take place, when last grain of a stone will be scattered and will turn to ground.
Any phenomenon of the multiverse, the universe as well, has the beginning – the moment of its birth. It also has the moment of the disappearance, the moment of its death. And somewhere in middle, between these two points, the moment of the phenomenon’s maximum development exists – the moment of its reaching one’s full blosson. All phenomena of a universe without fail submit to the law of cyclicity, and have a double spiral of development.
Of course, there are events with a single cycle of a primary spiral of the development. There is: a pair problem – counter-problem disappears after only the first loop of a primary spiral. There we could not see a multiple repeat of the same quality development cycle. However, that does not contradict the law of cyclic (cyclisity) . It would mean that a given phenomenon could only exist within just one cycle of its development.