a.5 Theory of time

Theory of time

In this article we will take a look at such a complex phenomenon that is known to us as time. Probably, time is the most mystical and incomprehensible phenomenon men face. For centuries, science tries to understand, what is this phenomenon – time? But it is as inexplicable today as it was thousand years ago. Eventually science comes to conclusion that time is a certain substance of our universe – one of the forms of the matter existence.

Alas, it’s not so. Modern science is wrong about time, as it was wrong about energy. Time is not a kind of matter. It does not even exist as a phenomenon of the multiverse. Time – is an artificial term which man thinks up for the convenience of determine his position and not get lost in continuously varied world. This error cost science dearly, because it stalled further development in understanding fundamental laws of the multiverse.

Einstein was wrong to connect space with time in unified space-time continuum. He was captivated by the beauty of

E = mc2 /√(1-v2/c2)

that points clearly to the connection of matter-energy-space to time. Alas, great Einstein forgot that mathematics – is an instrument invented by men and can explain physical essence of phenomena. But mathematics can not substitute itself the nature laws.

We will take an alternative approach:

  • Time does not exist as sort of “mutated” matter.
  • Time is a fictional mathematical variable.
  • Time is a feature of phenomena’s evolution and denotes the speed of this evolution.

Before we take these issues in more detail, let us consider another term – change.

Our universe is not static; there are changes every moment. One cannot find a single phenomenon, not one elementary particle, which would remain the same next instance. It is ensured by the first law of the multiverse – the law of motion. The law states: any material phenomena – from a quantum of matter and material bodies to galaxies – are constantly moving in space.

At the basis of any evolution lies en elementary cycle of material elementary particle movement in space of the universe. Every elementary particle of matter in universe will change its location in space the very next moment: it would more too same distance in space. It` s of no importance: whether it travel in space all alone or is a parts of a material body- a planet for instance. All elementary particles of matter interact with energy independently of each other. Each material particle of matter, when being a part of a material body, what ever the size, interacts with energy absolutely independently of other elementary particles.

Any material phenomenon has certain features: weight, density, temperature, modular state, color, chemistry, electric conductivity, etc. All these properties are defined by state of elementary particles of matter (featuring quantity, energy, mass, positioning in space, atomic structure, etc) that form this phenomenon.

All these characteristics, as we have seen in previous articles, are defined by the speed of elementary particles of matter in the space of the universe (that is: the velocity of the galaxy motion in space of the universe). The faster galaxies move, the more energy is folded (absorbs) by its elementary particles. The more energy is folded, the more powerful are the flows of energy these particles create. That, in turn, increases forces of attraction and repulsion, atomic and molecular interactions increase, creates different chemical and atomic structures. That gives more properties variety to material bodies that are made of these elementary particles.

Any material phenomenon could be imagined as a sum of elementary particles. That sum of myriad particles constantly moves in space as a part of a galaxy, constantly growing in speed and ever changing. Features and characteristics of material phenomenon – temperature, color, density, mass and energy – constantly change as a result of movement of material phenomenon inside the space of the universe.

Thus, we can put a sign of direct dependence between movement and change: No matter what ever material changing, occurs in the universe, it is always the result of matter movement in the universe space.

The very thoughts are born due to motion, because thoughts of a human being are electric impulses moving inside brain tissues.

All material events – absolutely all of them – are caused by motion. One cannot even imagine how anything could happen without motion. Each and every moment myriads of changes occur around us to every material body. At each instant of life in ourselves and around of us occur myriad changes. A thought flashed in a head – there was a change, the droplet of a rain moved a millimeter – there was a change, a head turned to a not clear a sound, one bent down for a dropped handkerchief, there was a splitting atom of uranium, the temperature of air increased by one degree, the beam of the sun touched the ground, the galaxy promoted for the next millimeter – absolutely everything become another the next instant: there was a movement, there was a change.

CHANGE – is a quality of material phenomena to gain and change properties as a result of elementary particles’ forward motion of these phenomenon in space of the universe .

So, we could also make the following conclusion: any change of material phenomenon is defined by the distance that its matter particles traveled.

I ~ L

The more distance is traveled by material phenomenon – the more quantity of changes occurs to it. Less distance – less quantity of changes.

The distance, covered by the matter elementary particle is directly proportional to the quantity of the energy, folded (absorbs) by this particle and is inversely proportional to the mass of particle itself. That is: the more energy this particle fold – the greater distance it travels, the more changes occur to it.

L ~ e / m           or               I ~ L ~ e / m

L – distance traveled by an elementary particle;

I – change;

e – amount of energy folded (absorbs) by this particle.

m – mass of material elementary particle.

That fits all material phenomena. Differences lie in the amount of elementary particles a phenomenon consists of. Any material phenomenon can be viewed as a sum of elementary particles it is made of. Change is directly related to all material phenomena, as we think.

So, the change formula:

I ~ L ~ e / m

 Any change material particle (body) undergoes, is directly proportional to distance traveled by it in space by the universe. It is also directly proportional to energy that was spent on it and inversely proportional to particle (body) mass.

At this point, we need to introduce a personal module of change – a measurement unit. For personal module of change we can take a unit distance traveled by a particle of matter or physical body. Herewith:

  • Per unit mass we will take a rest mass (m0) of elementary particle (physical body). That is – in the initial moment of motion of the galaxy, at a time when it still does not have the energy.
  • Per unit of energy – we will take the amount of energy that will fold (absorb) by an elementary particle of matter (physical body) at the minimum (initial) speed of its motion. That is – the minimum number of (e0). We assume this minimum speed per unit (v0 = 1);

For the personal module of a material phenomenon change we take the distance traveled by that material phenomenon at an initial positive velocity of the galaxy forward motion in the universe (v0=1). Minimum of energy is spent at this. Mass of the material phenomenon is equal to its rest mass .

I0 ~ l0 ~ (e0 / m0)

 It should be noted that the physical bodies do not exist at the initial moment of the forward motion of galaxy. They appear only when the galaxy accelerates to sufficiently high speed. However, we need to make this assumption to facilitate the understanding of the essence of time.

Personal module of change – is a strictly individual value. Module of change is the starting point for calculating the evolution of a physical phenomenon in galaxy.

It is not enough to have just one quantitative characteristic of change to understand a phenomenon of “time”. For example, few tons of fuel is required to heat an average-sized building during one winter season. However, if one burned the fuel momentarily, he would destroy the building. We see the same amount of change occurring to the fuel, but results are absolutely different. The difference is obvious – it lies in the speed of changes which occur.

Changes can happen consequentially one after another. Here we see the sequence of changes and evolution of the phenomenon in its simplest version. Or they can occur synchronously at the same moment. Suppose, an elementary particle traveled “l” distance at one moment, and another moment traveled «n×l» = n-times more. And so at the same moment with a material phenomenon there can occur “n “ times more change – any amount of change

Ione ~ n× i0

or:          Lone ~ n×e0/m0     Ione ~ Lone = еone /m0 

 The number of changes of the material phenomena simultaneously is proportional to the ratio of energy spent on it to its rest mass, or to the distance traveled by it for this moment. The quantity of simultaneous change of the material phenomenon is proportional to the ratio of energy spent on it to its rest mass, or to the distance traveled by it for this moment.

The ideas of “simultaneity (synchronism)” of occurring changes, will help us find another important characteristic of evolution – speed of phenomena evolution. If two changes occur simultaneously (synchronously), we get one speed of evolution. If five changes occurred at the same moment with it, we get the speed of evolution two and a half times higher. This axiom demands no proof: the more changes occur simultaneously (synchronously) to the phenomenon, the higher is the speed of evolution.

Speed of evolution of a material phenomenon is  “a module of evolution (W)”   of a material phenomenon and is defined as relation of quantity of simultaneously changes occurring with a material phenomenon – to its change module.

 W = Ione/ i0

One simple example to it: a material particle passes three meters of space in one moment, having a module of distance one meter. W=3/1=3 relation signify that a given particle evolves with the speed equal three.

Module of evolution defines the size of simultaneity: how many changes could be put into one moment. Simultaneously with a material phenomenon two modules of changes occurred. We get one value of simultaneity – the speed of evolution: W=(2×i0)/i0=2. Five modules of change occurred simultaneously with a material phenomenon – we get another speed: W=(5×i0)/i0=5. In our second case, the value of simultaneity has increased. It has gotten two and a half times more changes than the first one.

i0 ~ e0/ m0             and                  I ~ L

then        W ~ Lодном× m0 /e0

Evolution module of a material phenomenon is proportional to the ratio of product of its rest mass and the distance traveled simultaneously by it to its energy module.

“Simultaneity” – is the stumbling stone many learned men broke their teeth on. Ignoring the concept of “simultaneity” of occurring changes led science into a blind alley in its attempt to define time phenomenon. There was no need to build colossal theories of time; it was enough to take a look at the small closet and rediscover good old definition of “simultaneity”.

Men err because they tend to judge the flow of time in respect to the evolution speed of their own bio organism. From the position of one’s own perception of the “simultaneity” value. They ignore a simple fact that their perception of time also changes. Let’s remember your own sensation of childhood: “how time passes slowly by!” Even the rhyme of well-known Russian poet was dedicated to years:           

they crawl till twenty

they go from twenty

they run from thirty

   they fly from forty…

The explanation is quite simple. The speed of metabolism and regeneration is the highest in childhood. Then they decline up to man death. These are chemical reactions at their base and these are changes as well. Evolution module of a child is larger than a evolution module of an adult. Sensation of the change of time flow is the objective property of developing human organism.

From the objective point of view, there is no such physical quantity as a “moment of time”. Objectively there are no such phenomenon as second, minute, hour, year… There is only simultaneity of occurring changes. Every material phenomenon in the universe is experiencing value of the moment in its own unique way, depending on how it evolved at the moment.

Fundamentally, the formula of evolution module looks like this:

Wv ~ Lv× m0 /e0

Let us digress a bit and remember that the amount of folded (absorbs) energy by particle’s grows proportionately to the speed of its forward motion (e ~ v). At the speed of light ( c ) matter particle would fold (absorb) maximum amount of energy (Ес ~ c). At any speed ( v ), amount of folded energy is always proportional to:


Therefore: e0 ~ Ес ×v0/c. If   v0 = const = 1, then e0с/с.

Wv~Lv×m0/e0     or     Wv~Lv×m0×c/Ec

If we express «Ec» through «Ev» (Ev ~ Ec × v / c., and, respectively: Ec ~ Ev × c / v), we obtain:

Wv ~ Lv × m0 × v / Ev

 moduleof evolution (Wv) of a material phenomenon at the velocity «v» of its forward motion is proportional to the ratio of the product of the distance «Lv» traveled by it simultaneously at the velocity «v», its rest mass «m0», and the velocity «v» of its forward motion – to the energy “Ev” which it folds (absorbs) simultaneously at the velocity (v).

The ratio of the full evolution of the phenomenon (the full number of changes) – to the module of its evolution defines the “personal time” of the existence of the phenomenon. Suppose, the full evolution of the phenomenon is 1000 changes. Simultaneously with the phenomenon five changes occurred. Personal existence time of the phenomenon would be: 1000/5 = 200 units. If 20 occurrences simultaneously would happen with the same phenomenon, the personal time of its existence is: 1000/20 = 50 units. What does this mean? Not only that in the second case the period of existence of the phenomenon will be four times shorter. We see the changed rate of evolution. In the second case four times more changes “squeezed” in one moment, so for this phenomenon the   moment of time stretched.  Objectively, the material phenomenon will feel all the changes happening to it. Here we see a much more complete sense of flow of time. Time for the phenomenon became “stretched” and flowed slowly.      

Suppose, in a second you passed two meters, and the next time you ran six meters a second. This means that you have made more evolutionary actions at that moment. The speed evolution increased threefold. And the second somewhat “stretched” for you That is, the time slowed down for you while you were running.

It is possible to assume that for this very second, you ran a million kilometers. The rate of evolution has greatly multiplied. The same second lengthened to you in proportion to these one million kilometers. Subjectively, you will feel the overcoming of every meter of the distance. And the distance will be 500 000 000 times longer! And all of them get in to one second: you are sure to feel this stretch of time.  

Hence the definition of time: Time is not an objective value or substance of the universe. Time is a subjective sensation by each material phenomenon the speed of its evolution.

This subjectivity has created a misconception about the time among men. 

The time flow of all changes in the surrounding world is estimated by man through the lenses of the time flow of his own organism.

Take an example: the complete evolution of a phenomenon is 1 000 000 changes in 500 the simultaneous changes. We get the lifetime of this phenomenon

T=1000000/500 = 2 000 units

If the complete evolution of another phenomenon is 4000 changes, with 2-simultaneous changes, we obtain the same number of units:

4000 / 2 = 2000 units

So, it turns out that these two different phenomena will exist at one and the same time?
           – No.

These phenomena have different speed – module of evolution. The first module of evolution is: W1=500/1=500, the second phenomenon has a module of evolution:

W2 =2/1=2.   500 / 2 = 250

Module of evolution of the first phenomenon will be 250 times higher than the module of evolution of the second phenomenon. And their allegedly identical time of existence will be read differently: the personal time of existence of the first phenomenon is similar to the personal time of existence of the second phenomenon.

Seems difficult and confusing. That is why man invented a mathematical description of evolution – the time – and defined the speed of time flow through a unified module of time for all phenomena: second, minute, hour ….   Lets get back to our example. If we take a single modulus of evolution for both phenomenon, for example W = 50, then we get time comprehensible for us of the existence of both phenomena

W1 = 1 000 000/50 = 20 000

W2 = 4 000/50 = 200 

W1 / W2 = 20 000/200 = 100 

 In the surrounding reality the first phenomenon will exist 100 times longer.

Finally we reach the heart of the sought concept: His Majesty Time. The evolution modulus of a material phenomenon: «W» is its module of time – personal time module of the phenomenon:

 Wphenomenon = tphenomenon

Every phenomenon in the universe is unique and has its personal modulus of time. So people, so as not to cause confusion, introduced the concept of the unified modulus of time: seconds, minutes, hours … The unified modulus of time – second – equals 9192631770 periods of the radiation of the cesium atom . It is determined by the science that the evolution module «W» of cesium atom – is the unified for all the phenomena module time «t»:

“Wcesium = unified modulus of time”  

This can be read as: with cesium atoms take place simultaneously 9 192 631 770 changes. Or: simultaneity – common assumed second – holds 9 192 631 770 changes in the cesium atom. If the time taken for the module 10 000 000 000 periods of radiation of the cesium atom, our second would be “longer”.

The ratio of the modulus of the evolution of a material phenomenon – to unified modulus of time:

«Wphenomena / tcesium = k»

determines how many times slowly, or how many times faster, to a generally accepted modules of time, flows the personal time of material phenomenon.

Now lets define the formula of the unified time modulus.

Velocity – «v» – defined as the ratio of traveled distance «Lv» to a unified modulus of time «t»:

 v = Lv / t

 Inserting this expression in to our formula

 W ~ Lv × m0 × v / Ev

we obtain:

W ~ m0 × Lv × Lv / Ev × t

«W = t × k», then: «W = t × k ~ m0 × Lv2 / Ev × t», from here: «t2 ~ m0 × Lv2/Ev × k» or:

t ~ √ (m0 × Lv2 / Ev × k)

conventional modulus of time – a second – is proportional to the square root of the ratio of the product’s rest mass (m0) of material phenomenon, square of the distance (Lv2) it traveled at the speed of forward motion «v», within this second – to the energy (Ev), which it folds (absorbs) at the  speed   “v”
For the cesium atom it will look like this:

 tcesium ~ √( m0 × Lv2 / Ev)

 By making small mathematical transformations, we obtain the formula for the energy of the material phenomenon :

Ev ~ m0 × Lv2 / t2 × k,                     Ev ~ m0 × v2 / k

At speeds «v = c», our formula will look like                                            

Ev ~ m0 × c2 / k  

And for cesium:                              

 Ev ~ m0 × v2                and                 Ec ~ m0 × c2

 Looks familiar, isn’t it?  

 But it is read differently: the amount of energy, which simultaneously folds the material phenomenon at the light velocity «c» is proportional to the product of its rest mass (m0) and the square of the light velocity (c2). But not “the maximum amount of energy that the body (particle) has, with its mass equal to rest mass, equaling the product of its rest mass and the square of the speed of light”, as science views it.  Such interpretation of the formula – is one of the errors of science.

If we express «m0» through «mv»:

«mv = m0 + m0 × v / c»  

then our formula becomes:

 Ev ~ mv × v2 × c / (c + v) × k

 If «c = v», we obtain:

 Ec ~ mv × c2 / 2 × k

It’s so easy and it’s so annoying. Science could easily identify the notion “time” with the notion «speed of evolution» two hundred years ago. Errors of dialectics laws resulted in the error to understand the phenomenon “time”, it led science to a blind alley.

Philosophers accepted Hegelian laws joyously, without understanding where these laws could lead them. Einstein didn’t connect time to evolution; instead, he defined it as a part of space-time continuum. The great ones also err sometimes…  

Now we can define the flow of time. Everything in nature has its beginning and its end. The moment phenomenon comes to existence, changes start to occur to it. Train of changes continues to the death of a phenomenon. I.e. the moment it exists no longer. Full amount of change «Ifull» that occurs to a phenomenon during its life cycle, equals «Ifull = Isingle+ Isingle+ Isingle+ Isingle+ Isingle+….» – is the complete evolution of the phenomenon. Complete evolution is strictly individual to each and every phenomenon and is always a finite value.

The ratio of simultaneous number of changes to the modulus of change ”Isingle/i0=t” is in fact the personal time modulus of a phenomenon. Then the ratio of full amount of changes to value of simultaneous change “Ifull/Isingle” defines the amount of these time modules – personal time “T” of a phenomenon existence.

Т=Ifull/ Isingle

Personal existence time of a material phenomenon is defined as a ratio of a full amount of changes accrued to it a value of its accrued change.

The galaxy’s forward motion constantly grows in space of the universe. It means the constant increase of simultaneous changes which occur to each and every elementary particle of matter in galaxy. The matter in galaxy concentrates as material bodies, which leads to the effect velocity increase of elementary particles’ forward motion that comprise these bodies. That, in turn, automatically increases the amount simultaneous changes with these particles.

Every material phenomenon in the galaxy has its own flow of time, because it is comprised of the unique number of elementary particles, has its own the unique amount of simultaneous changes, its own evolution speed, and its own time modulus.

Seconds, minutes, hours, etc are widely accepted as time module. However, according to our logic, each material phenomenon experiences these seconds, minutes, hours… individually.

There is no such entity as “time” in the multiverse. It only appears when changes occur in the universe. But all changes have to do with energy and matter interaction. If whole of matter absolutely motionless, there is no change, there is no time as well. If nothing moves, how would one measure and define time?

Even if one quantum of matter would become alive in the galaxy, time would start moving in the galaxy. But time will be the most “swift” for all the cycle of the galaxy existence and development. If two quanta would move, galaxy’s time would slow down proportionately to these two ones the increase of motion. The more occurrence currently simultaneous changes take place, will a phenomenon the slower time goes.

It is possible to draw a time-flow graph for one cycle of galaxy evolution. Here we could see the following picture.


On the Y-axis we showed the time flow. On the X-axis we showed and an elementary particle of matter. To be exact, this is sequence quanta of matter in their mass.

What we have in view here is that all these quanta of matter fold all their allowed energy. «Мmax» stands for the amount of folded (or released) energy by the heaviest quantum of an elementary particle, i.e. half of all the energy folding by an elementary particle.

Let us recall the galaxy development cycle (see article 1 “Matter, enrgy, space”):  

  • The galaxy reaches at the speed of light the borders of the universe as a super small monolith of pre-matter. It explodes there, brakes up into elementary particles of matter, Big Bang happens. Each elementary particle of matter releases half of its energy during this bang (only the heaviest quantum releases its energy). Galaxy’s velocity of forward motion falls down. Its the first stage.
  • The second one is the stage of primordial chaos. Galaxies slow down their velocity of forward motion to a minimum value (but not zero) – in the conditional zero point.
  • At the third – dynamic stage, galaxy grows in speed until they reach the speed of light. Galaxies progress from hydrogen nebulae phase, through star phase, to quasar phase.
  • The fourth stage is when galaxies collapse into black holes. All galaxy energy and matter turns into pre-matter.
  • At the last stage – pre-matter stage – galaxy flies as a pre-matter monolith to the boundary of the universe.

During the primordial chaos stage, each elementary particle of matter – quantum after quantum (starting with the heaviest) – releases the bound energy and slows down in speed. At that, each sequent quantum simultaneously releases two times less energy than the previous one.

It is other way round during the dynamic stage: each elementary particle of galaxy quantum after quantum (starting with the lightweight) folds energy; more and more of it progressively. Galaxy slowly increases its velocity of forward motion in the space of the universe.

We get a parabola on the graph. Here we should note:

  • Time is practically nonexistent at the moment before the Big Bang, because no energy of matter elementary particle is folded or released. Despite that galaxies’ forward motion equals the speed of light.
  • Big bang stage could be viewed as the stage with the slowest time flow, because maximum of changes take place simultaneously which can occur to the galaxy: all the matter of the galaxy gets released from the half (!) of all energy absorbed in the previous cycle of the galaxy development.
  • Primordial chaos stage is the one where time goes progressively faster. The galaxy slows down its forward motion and the number of simultaneous changes becomes less and less.
  • At the contingent zero point we would observe the fastest flow of time for the galaxy. However, the galaxy velocity at motion itself would become nearly zero; there are almost no changes.
  • At the beginning of the dynamic stage, galaxies’ time flow begins slowing; amount of simultaneous changes grows as well as the forward motion of the galaxy grows.
  • Time continues slowly down at the black hole stage, as well.
  • Once the speed of light is reached by the galaxy, elementary particles stop absorbing free energy. The galaxy collapses and shrinks into a monolith of pre-matter. A somewhat unclear moment occurs: there are no changes inside the galaxy, but it continues moving in the universe. Kind of, a time flow for the galaxy should become allegedly slowest, because it moves at the speed of light. At the same time, time itself should not exist at all: the material particles do not absorb energy and there are no changes with them as well. This is the state of time transition in the galaxy. Time transition state corresponds to the pre-matter stage. Galaxy flies to the ends of the universe as a spindle of pre-matter where it reaches its boundary and blazes up in the Big Bang process.

We could introduce concepts of objective time and subjective time. There are no fundamental differences between them: both of them deal with a flow of time for phenomenon of the multiverse. However, if we would label time flow of a large phenomenon to be objective, then its constituting phenomena’ time flows would be subjective.

For example, we could call the time flow of our galaxy objective; time flows of its planets and stars or any material boxy would be subjective in that case.

Indeed, any planet or star exists within the framework its galaxy’s objective time flow, moving as a part of the galaxy with its speed. The objective time flow of galaxies is defined by mass of active elementary-particle quantum; its standard speed is the real speed of galaxies’ forward motion.

At the same time, all stars or planets are mighty condensation of matter. Within such a compaction, quantum of considerably larger mass becomes active. Its standard speed is higher than the galaxy’s forward motion. E.g. there would be more changes happening to a planet (star) simultaneously, than with separate matter particle outside it. This factor defines the subjectivity of a planet’s of a star’s time flow.

Objective time – or galactic time – is the velocity of the galaxy’s time flow and is defined by an active-matter quantum at which standard velocity galaxy moves. E.g. objective time is defined by the velocity of forward motion of a galaxy. Galactic time is the objective factor to all material bodies in a galaxy.

Subjective time is the time-flow speed of a discrete physical body in a galaxy. It is defined by its matter density and by the mass of active quantum of matter that comprise it

We have considered the concept of “time”. As we can see, time is not a “mutated” matter – fourth dimension of space-time continuum. Time is an artificial value invented by men not to get lost in the constantly changing world. Men judge speed of all evolutionary changes by time. The multiverse is actually simpler than it is represented by the mainstream science.

On the theory of relativity

Despite our concept of four substances is alternative to dominating concept, our approach has almost no affect on the vast edifice of science. We changed the “foundation” and slightly “stirred up” the entire building. In this case, part of “bricks” flew away, part – change their places. But this building has become more simple, more orderly and logical. Surprisingly, the concept of four substances, does not contradict the basic tenets of the theory of relativity.

  • Speed of light – is the highest rate of forward motion in space.
  • Laws of nature (the speed of light included) do not depend on the reference system.
  • Time for material phenomena slow down its progress as they increase their speed of forward motion.
  • Physical dimensions of bodies decrease with increasing speed of their forward motion.
  • The mass of particles and bodies increases with increasing speed of their forward motion.
  • The light rays are deflected by the gravitational field.

We have not come to the expression:        

E = mc2 /√(1-v2/c2)

because it is science grands mistake.

The error of the theory of relativity is in joining of space and time to a unified space – time continuum. Hence the emergence of the concept of “four vectors”, the growth of matter mass to infinity, its disappearance at the time of achieving the speed of light, and the twins’ paradox…


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