Mechanisms of star and planet formation. Synthesis processes the atoms of chemical elements
This article deals with mechanisms of star and planet formation, synthesis processes the atoms of chemical elements.
Elementary particles of matter forms energy compacting behind the point of annihilation. The density of these compaction is reduce proportionally to the square of a distance from an elementary particle:
«P ~ 1 / 4πr2».
In view of super small distances between elementary particles, the density of free energy has an ultimately high value inside atomic space. That is true for intramolecular and intermolecular spaces. In view of the midget distances between atoms in a molecule and between molecules in a physical body, the density of free energy will not simply have enough area to reduce to low rates.
High density of energy inside a physical body produces a new unusual and of utmost importance effect — the effect of velocity increase of forward motion of elementary particles of matter. The effect means that the annihilation point having come in a high density energy zone increases the amount of folding (absorbing) energy. The cause is the vigorous exceeding of the density of surrounding energy over the matter density in a point of annihilation.
Imagine an elementary matter particle to come into the zone of the space with high energy density. Free energy of surrounding space begins to immediately arrange the density of matter of an active quantum in accordance with its own density. That active quantum begins to absorb simultaneously more energy (proportionally to the surrounding density of free energy). This proceeds as if an elementary particle of matter has increased its forward motion speed.
THE EFFECT OF VELOCITY INCREASE OF FORWARD MOTION of elementary particles of matter — an increase of simultaneously folding energy by an active quantum of matter. This increase takes place when a particle of matter comes into a space with high free energy density. It is always intra-atomic, intramolecular and intermolecular space inside physical bodies. In result, with this matter particle there are all phenomena, as if it increased the forward motion speed.
Such an ultimate density of free energy inside material bodies permits such phenomena as electric current, nuclear and chemical interactions. Huge difference between the density of free energy inside and outside a physical body makes a base for such phenomena as electromagnetic and gravity fields, andular phenomena, various radiations, optic phenomena.
Atom formation of chemical elements.
Imagine a planet or a star. It is known that the density of matter inside stars and planets increases while moving towards the centre of a planet or a star. Consequently, the density of free energy increases inside a planet or a star.
Such high density of free energy inside a planet or a star produces the effect of velocity increase. Besides the nearer to the centre of a planet or a star the higher is the value of this effect. Elementary particles of matter in deep layers of a star or a planet fold (absorb) simultaneously much more energy than elementary particles located superficially.
There is a rule of standard speed for an atom of a chemical element.
THE RULE OF STANDARD SPEED FOR AN ATOM OF EVERY CHEMICAL ELEMENT: the atoms of every subsequent element of the periodical table are formed after its elementary particles of matter reach a speed of forward motion specific for every atom in the universe space.
This regularity occurs because attractive forces in an annihilation point of elementary particle increase as well during galaxy speed increase. And, the distances among the particles of matter decrease. This permits atoms of farther order to form in the process of galaxy acceleration in the space of the universe. The result is that in accordance with of the velocity increase effect the conditions for permanent genesis of atoms of heavier chemical elements are created in the center of planets or stars nuclei.
Condensation of proto-stars and proto-planets starts to form within a phase of gas-and-dust nebula of the galaxy evolution. It is a concentration of high density matter in comparison to its environment. These proto-condensations consist of elementary particles of matter, atoms of deuterium, atoms and molecules of elementary chemical elements. In process of velocity increase of forward motion of the galaxy, matter density and free energy density in these condensation also permanently increase.
This density leads to effect velocity increase of elementary particles. Ultimately in the centre of proto-condensation this effect reaches the value of atom formation of the following chemical element. For example the proto-condensation consists of atoms and molecules of lithium, helium, hydrogen and protium. The effect of the velocity increase finally reaches the standard rate of formation of beryllium atoms. It means, lithium atom at a distance of intra-nuclear interaction was approached by another doubled structure of elementary particles. The lithium atom incorporates the doubled structure as part of itself. It forms atoms of beryllium.
That higher gravitational force of heavier atoms allows them to become the center of the protocondensation and form the structure of «layered cake». Where, the center is occupied by the heaviest chemical elements; the lighter atoms are at the periphery.
As a result in the process of a galaxy headway gearing up and the increase of matter density in inspissations of protostars and protoplanets, in their centers the conditions for the genesis of atoms of heavier chemical elements are formed. Lithium, beryllium, boron, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and so on… Chemical elements are formed consequently in compliance with numbering in the periodical system of chemical elements.
Atoms of more heavy chemical elements in galaxy are formed consecutively, as the velocity of the galaxy forward motion increases, or as the density increase of matter inside proto-condensation of stars and planets.
Inside the formed planets and stars, these processes are somewhat different. The reason is in the absence of free doubled structures — atoms of deuterium. To join a new doubled structure the atom should be near such a free double structure. It is clear that as the protoplanets (protostar) become denser, such free structures within them becomes less. Finally, they all disappear. And to add a new double structure to itself, the atom has to «take away» this structure from another atom. And for this it must destroy the structure of that another atom. This is almost impossible. It is the lack of free pair of structures and the inability of the standard processes of the genesis of the heavier atoms, is the cause of the highest values of temperature and pressure in the inner layers of stars and planets. The energy density of inter-atomic space here is commensurable with the energy density of the intra-atomic space.
What happens in the center of the planet (or star), when pseudo velocity of its center far outweighs the standard velocity of the existing atoms?
The distances between atoms in the central layers of planet and star continuously decreasing. The distances between the periods of the atoms also decrease. It becomes “crowded” for the doubled structures inside the periods. This applies, first of all, to the doubled structures of the last period. Finally, the ring of last period is reduced so that the atom pushes the «extra» doubled structure, or part of the last period, or the period as a whole. Existing atoms and the structures of the liberated pair structures immediately begin to interact among themselves. General direction of this process — the formation of atoms of heavier chemical elements.
Due to tectonic process, some of heavy atoms from center planet or star are taken to their surface, into the conditions of normal pressure and temperature. That is – into the conditions closer to real velocity of it galaxy forward motion.
Obviously atoms of heavy elements begin to lose their energy, getting in such more light-weight conditions: the density of free energy around these atoms reduces, the reflux of energy begins from the inter-atomic space. While primarily the reflux of energy starts from the “extreme ring” — the last atomic period. Attractive and repulsive forces of an elementary particle of the last period in the atom reduce a bit faster than they are in the remaining part of the atom. The faster attractive forces reduce, the more the distance between the last period and all the remaining atomic structure increases.
Remember the laws of atom formation:
- Every period inside an atom interacts with the atom itself as one complete structure.
- At a certain distance from a geometric center of an atom there can be only a definite amount of twin structures of elementary particles.
Finally the distance between the last period of an atom and the remaining structure of the atom reaches the crucial value. Attractive forces weaken too much and the last period is “rejected”. This atom disintegrates into an atom of a noble gas and a light atom of another chemical element formed from pair structures of the last period.
The disintegration of the atom does not take place if the difference between effect of velocity increase and the actual speed of the galaxy doesn’t reach the extreme point. As a result when such heavy atoms get on the surface they keep their structure not corresponding the forward motion of the galaxy.
If the difference between effect of velocity increase and actual speed of the galaxy is near a critical value we obtain a radioactive substance that gradually loses its energy and gradually disintegrates into atoms of other chemical elements.
Thus we get the whole range of chemical elements of the periodical system on the surface of the planet.
The genesis of atoms of heavier chemical elements takes place in the center of planets and stars resulted by the effect of velocity increase in process of increasing the velocity of forward motion and rotational motion of planets and stars and increasing their weight.
Tectonic processes taking place on the Earth is the result of interaction of two processes:
- Constant gearing up of galaxy forward motion in the space of the universe. This constancy means that periodically (in full compliance with cyclicity law) a planet (its central nucleus to be precise) reaches the standard speed of formation of the next chemical element. Sudden change of energy take place in the nucleus of a planet: atom formation is a nuclear level of interrelation. The temperature of the nucleus decreases: the formation of a new atom demands considerable energy consumption. But by the upper boundary of the standard atom formation speed, when the nucleus represents a new chemical substance, the temperature of the nucleus increases again. The cyclicity of phenomena is evident. It is apparently linked to the increase and decrease cyclicity of tectonism of our planet, the warming and cooling down cyclicity of the climate.
- Rotation. The rotation of the Earth around its axis leads to redistribution of energy flows and vectors of forces in a particular way. For example heavier chemical substances due to a centrifugal force rush to the periphery of a planet. And deeply, towards the centre of a planet, lighter chemical substances are attracted. This engenders the circulation of substance inside our planet. For example we can clearly trace the law: the weight of planets rise in process of the increase the distance from the Sun. This fact is a direct evidence of redistribution of heavier and lighter masses depending on the rotation.
Besides as a result of tectonics and such genesis of chemical elements, nuclear reactions occur. And what makes the situation acutely with tectonic processes – displacement of layers occurs at much greater tempo.
Tectonic processes constantly intermix layers of chemical elements transferring chemical elements to other layers, forming new chemical substances and carrying them to the surface. This is the way geological processes originated and continue to originate, this is also the way the geological structure of the Earth was formed and continues to be formed.
The processes happening inside stars due to an enormous their mass and great density of matter have much more energy than processes happening inside planets. Therefore temperature and pressure inside a star is much higher than those inside a planet. Therefore tectonic processes happening inside a star are much more powerful than tectonic processes of a planet. For example: the phenomena of protuberances in the Sun when enormous masses of matter are thrown out to huge distances. These phenomena represent the final stage of the above mentioned tectonic processes. Besides, taking into account enormous masses of stars, an enormous degree of velocity increase effect, in their nuclei, there atoms of chemical elements with very large atomic mass are formed in their center. Approximating of such atoms to the star surface due to a tectonic processes results in active degilation processes in these atoms. As a result – nuclear processes occurred inside stars, and it causes extremely high temperatures inside stars and on their surface.
No doubt that the fact of global warming of the climate on the Earth in the modern history. Moreover this warming has a greater pitch than scientists used to predict. In view of the law of standard atomic velocity we obtain a fairly dark perspective. The possible reason of global warming of the Earth climate is the fact of repeated excess of the boundary of atoms standard velocity (pseudo-velocity) formation in the Earth center.
According to the process described above, the conversion of lighter atoms – in a heavier ones, part of the energy of interatomic space goes into the intraatomic energy of a new, heavier atoms. Accordingly, the temperature and pressure in the center of a planet decreases. These processes are transferred to the periphery. The planet starts to cool. A new ice age starts on the surface of the planet.
But before that, as in the center of the planet will begin to form atoms of a new, heavier chemical element, temperature and pressure here are achieve the highest (for the existing atom) values. The planet will be warming up. Moreover, the growth curve of temperature will become maximum when at the closest to the processes of forming a new atom. All this will manifest itself in increasing tectonic activities of the planet, the warming of the climate, and the rising ocean temperature.
Thus, the processes of global warming, natural disasters (tsunamis, earthquakes), taking place currently are more likely to be harbingers of the coming ice age.
All this, alas, means that probably in the not so distant future, mankind has to expect the problem of planetary scale. Indeed, extremely serious is the threat to the existence of our civilization. To deal with which humanity should combine all efforts. Moreover, the time allotted to us by history, is way too little.
Electric and chemical links
The evolution of galaxy on the stage of gas-and-dust fogginess ultimately reaches the point when a large amount of single elementary particles of matter in galaxy combine in twin structures of hydrogen atoms and other simplest atoms. This particularly relates to elementary particles inside condensation of protostars and protoplanets.
Atoms of chemical elements begin to interact. Electric and chemical links occur.
CHEMICAL LINKS are attractive and repulsive forces between atoms of chemical elements; links, connecting (disconnecting) atoms of chemical elements into molecules of chemical elements and molecules of chemical compound.
ELECTRIC LINKS are attractive and repulsive forces between molecules of chemical substances; links joining (disconnecting) molecules of chemical substances in physical bodies, liquids and gases.
As is known, every elementary particle interacts with the remaining material world as an independent solid structure. Similarly: every atom, every molecule, every physical body interacts with the remaining material world as an independent solid structure.
The nature of gravitation, electric, chemical and nuclear links is the same. All these links are formed by energy flows between the points of annihilation. That is attractive and repulsive forces of the annihilation point. The difference is the following:
- in nuclear (atomic) links: either elementary particles of matter or their twin structures – deuterium atoms — act as independent solid structures;
- in chemical links: atoms of chemical elements act as independent solid structures;
- in electric links: molecules of chemical substances act as independent solid structures;
- In gravitation links: physical bodies act as independent solid structures.
In atomic interaction free energy of the highest density participate – the energy of intra-atomic space. In chemical relations energy of less density participate – the energy of inter-atomic (intra-molecular) space. Intra-atomic energy does not participate in chemical interactions. Chemical links are much weaker than atomic links. Correspondingly chemical reactions in no way lead to changes in atomic structure.
In electric relations the energy of intermolecular space participate. Intra-atomic and intra-molecular energy does not participate in electric reactions. Electric reactions in no way lead to changes in molecular structure or atoms. A prominent display of electric reactions is electric current: the directed flows of free energy in intermolecular space of physical bodies.
We obtain in fact five values of density of free energy within a physical body.
- The first value of density this is the density of free energy behind the point of annigilation of an elementary particle of matter. The highest density of free energy in the galaxy.
- The second value relates to the average density of free energy behind the common point of annigilation of twin structures of elementary particles. Very high density of free energy.
- The third value denotes the average density of free energy between twin structures of elementary particles within an atom. That is the atomic space. Outside an atom we observe a drop of energy density. The classical physics calls the energy flows within an atom “Yokava forces”.
- The fourth value denotes the density of free energy within a molecule, in interatomic space, and out of coverage of Yukava forces. We obtain the high density of free energy in intra-molecular space. This is the energy of chemiclal relations.
- The fifth value denotes an average density of free energy in the intermolecular space — within a physical body (including liquid and gas states) This is the energy of electric links. The very flows of energy in a intermolecular space represent electric current in a conductor.
In all cases we obtain such values of density that remarkably exceed the values of density of free energy outside a physical body. The density of free energy outside a physical body may be denoted as the sixth value of density subject to gravitation forces – attractive and repulsive forces between physical bodies. In this case as unified solid system, with a common annygylation point – a physical body appears – the center of gravity of it – is the center of common annygylation point of physical body.
Accordingly, the mass of any physical body is composed of:
- mass of elementary particles of matter,
- mass of energy folded by elementary particles as their additional mass,
- mass of the free energy of compaction behind the point of annihilation of each particle (the intra-atomic space)
- mass of the free energy of inter-atomic and intermolecular space.
We viewed that when the weight of a planet or a star increases, pseudo-speed of elementary particles which are incorporated in the planet or the star rises too. Elementary particles of matter included in a structure of the planet as if increase the speed of their forward motion. But what occurs on when the value of the pseudo-speed reaches the speed of light?
A collapse must happen: elementary particles will fold the remaining part of energy and stop further annihilation. That is – it will stop folding of energy. It will become inert to particle: both attractive and repulsive forces will disappear.
Let us analyze the scheme of this process.
In the center of a supermassive star pseudospeed of separate atoms reaches the speed of light. At first these atoms collapse. The atomic space becomes “empty”. The “vacuum” (the space without energy) appears in the centre of the star. This vacuum will immediately attract the energy of neighboring atoms: these atoms will start to release energy to level up the density of energy in the centre of the star. A nuclear mini explosion takes place: the processes of energy release break off these atoms. The atomic break off results in to release more amount of energy into interatomic space. The density of energy in the centre of a star increases rapidly again and levels a critical value of pseudospeed for central atoms.
The situation repeats. The cycle takes place again: collapse and nuclear mini explosion but for the greater quantity of atoms.
The energy of nuclear explosions is directed not only to the centre of the star but to the periphery as well. It goes without saying that the energy of such a mini nuclear explosion can’t reach the surface of the star and easily fades down. This explosion is no more than a mosquito bite for the star.
The more increases the power of these processes then the reactions of nuclear decay seize more and more deeper layers of the star. The energy of every consequent nuclear explosion moves more and more on to the periphery of the star, before it fades down. In the very centre of the star there a minute nucleus of protomatter is growing.
Finally the next nuclear explosion reaches the surface of the star. All the surface becomes the surface of the nuclear explosion. The star gives an incredible flash of a pulsar. Probably, it is the pulsar that is formed as a result of the above mentioned processes. The first nuclear explosion of this kind can’t break off the star: a super massive star has too strong attractive force. The further explosions can do it neither.
From now on this star begins to pulse with bright flashes of radiation with growing force of every subsequent flash. This continues till the next nuclear explosion exceeds gravity power of the star and break the latter off. A supernova flashes. Further these only remains a tiny ball of pre-matter with unusually large mass and the highest possible density of the substance which can only exist in the universe without both attractive and repulsive force. This star is called a neutron star in astronomy. Though we can see that it has ”little to do with neutrons”.
Of course this is only a hypothesis but it looks no less real than the currently scientifically accepted.