Matter, space and energy
From the moment Homo sapiens appeared on this planet, he has been asking questions «What is it?», «What is it for?”, “How does it work?» and “What on earth does it mean?!” Thus, we can easily call Adam the first philosopher.
The cognition came together with a man. It is natural to ask questions and seek answers, because it is the domain of human mind. However, the science — as a precise construction of questions and answers — came into existence only after man was able to generate enough knowledge for these questions and answers. Indeed, man was busy collecting knowledge for many millennia.
Only after man gathered his first more or less complete package of knowledge about the surrounding environment, he became capable of storming the laws of the multiverse. It is the origin of philosophy. Naturally, man lost his first battle. The laws of the multiverse have kept their gates closed to man, whose level of knowledge remained too low. But man did not give up. He created new sciences and new tools of exploration. Man investigated, investigated and investigated…
That is the approximate description of the path man took to understand the fundamental laws of the multiverse. Even now, these laws remain hidden. However, humankind is as close to them as never before.
Let’s try to find out why the current state of things is not so good. To that end, let’s take a look at the dynamics of scientific development during the history of humanity.
The history of modern science could be divided into three stages:
- 1.Pre-Newtonian stage. It covers the time period since the birth of civilization until the coming of great Newton’s teaching. Actuality, that is the first stage of knowledge accumulation. It is the accumulation and development in mathematics, astronomy and other natural sciences that prodded the first revolutionary leapscience.
- 2.Newtonian stage. Newton was the first one who defined verily scientific, fundamental laws of nature. His discoveries allowed the first qualitative leap in science. Newton gave the laws through which the scientists were able to revise the whole baggage of knowledge humanity had accumulated. For two hundred years since Newton, the science has been developing breadth, filling the niche, that the Newton’s laws had
- 3.Einsteinian stage. As science was revising the accumulated knowledge about nature, more and more facts were coming into light which weren’t fitting Newtonian theory frames. When they there were too many of them, it became evident that a new revision of fundamental laws was necessary. Einstein gave these new laws. His theory of relativity is a revolutionary leap forward, which allowed science to revise the whole baggage of knowledge, accumulated by the humanity, from a new view point. And the following development in human knowledge, even to our days, is an evolutionary development of science — as the way to fill the new niche, given by Einstein.
Indeed, the scientific and technological revolutions of the past century are a implementation of Einsteinian ideas. No qualitative leap, that allow to revise the whole baggage of knowledge, accumulated by the humanity, has not occur in science since the Einstein time.
Einstein himself named the milestone which will give the new qualitative leap in science – theory of unified fields. Since then, scientists are in a constant search for this theory. That theory for every scientist as “a marshal’s baton in soldier knapsack”.
But all seekers can’t see the most important thing: they need an absolutely new approach for the exploration of nature’s laws. All efforts to create the theory of unified fields, which are based on Einsteinian model, are doomed failure. The theory must give a principally new explanation of the laws of the Multiverse (otherwise, Einstein would have discovered these laws himself).
Newton became great because he denied dogmatic approach which ruled the day. Einstein finds glory because he abandons static Newtonian picture of the world. New leap in science will only occur when somebody would dare to challenge Einstein and deny his space-time theory.
Alas, modern physics has become ossified in its estimation of the laws of nature. It’s quite understandable: there are gods on the pedestal – Einstein, Bohr, and others. But scientific progress is unstoppable. More and more data are accumulated which can’t be fitted in the given frames of conventional theories. Now is a ripe time to reevaluate the fundamentals.
At that very moment, philosophy finally gets a chance to become the mother of all sciences. It’s the philosophy that is able to make a new qualitative leap. Because the unified field theory represents those fundamental, basic laws of a universe — the main subject of eternal search of philosophy.
Here and in the following articles, we will view material universe and laws which govern it. First, we will view the fundamental substances of the universe.
The ruling concept regards only one substance: our entire world is made of matter in its different forms. Even space and time is viewed as a single space-time continuum and as a form of matter. Yes, that concept is based on the achievements of modern science that describe the material multiverse quite precisely. However, the whole spectrum of different phenomena currently is out of scientific grasp. First of all it refers to the sphere of a human being activity. Science has a two fold attitude to it: either it closes the eyes like on ostrich hiding its head in sand or produces a short resume: there is no explanation to it as science has not reached required level of know large so far.
Already a century had passed since great Einstein had created his theory – the science had made a great leap. It seems, there should be another small step, and the fundamental laws of the multiverse will be found. However, for example, when we look at subatomic physics, we see that there are dozens of elementary particles, and their number is growing. Taking into view, that our material world is made of only three particles (proton, electron and neutron), the function of the rest of the particles remains unclear. The understanding of the fundamental laws of the multiverse also remains as elusive, as one hundred years ago.
So what if we are looking for the answer at the wrong place? Maybe we should look at some different places. To do it we should make a very simple step and a very hard step at the same time – we should deny some of the well-established scientific clichés. At first – of the basic notions: fundamental phenomena of the multiverse.
For example — matter. Scientists came into habit to brand everything as matter: from stars to thoughts. This hodge-podge, often of discrepant phenomena, is one of the basic causes why the secrets of the multiverse remain undiscovered. What about the energy? One can ask any physicist: “What is energy?” In reply you will have a explanation which will not clarity to you – neither the nature of energy, nor its bearer, means of its existence, space characteristics, means of its interaction with material particles and space. Energy exists but somehow it doesn’t exist: modern science is unable to explain such a fundamental phenomenon as energy. This inability is the main stumbling block for science when it tries to give an explanation to laws of the multiverse. Currently science is unable to overcome this obstacle. It is this very point where one showed seek the roots of all problems of natural science. Lack of knowledge erroneous understanding of such a basic phenomenon as “energy” give birth to false erroneous viewpoints at the multiverse itself.
First, let us change our view point to energy. We will separate it from matter and turn into a substance of its own. Energy is an independent, fundamental and material substance of the multiverse due to which all changes occur.
From the four substance conception, energy is at the base of any change in the multiverse. It is an independent material substance which fills all space of the universe, all space between elementary particles, between atoms, between molecules, between physical bodies… Energy is the main component of evolutionary events: any movement or change in the universe only occurs due to absorption of energy from space, or release the energy to space by elementary particles. Energy is the “cement” that binds the “bricks” of matter (particles, atoms and molecules), forming material events in the multiverse. Energy is the engine of any change and any development. One cannot feel it, smell it or hear it: our organs of perceptions are not made for it. Energy doesn’t have particles, so it has no dimensional characteristics. It is impossible to weigh it and you cannot take pictures of it. But energy is everywhere. In fact, we are surrounded by the ocean of energy – ocean the size of our universe (although, the energy density in outer space is so low, that people have grown to call it “vacuum”). We ourselves are part of that ocean. Energy fills up us as well, filling the void between material particles in our bodies. The fact that we cannot feel or measure it, doesn’t mean that energy is not there. The approach “I don’t see it – it doesn’t exist” is a major delusion of man that “energy” doesn’t exist as a separate, independent material substance.
The substance of energy is material. Unfortunately, science doesn’t give us an exact definition of how exactly material events differ from immaterial ones. Modern science of nature flatly denies the immaterial. To its view, there are no immaterial events in nature at all. We have an alternative approach – nature has both immaterial and material phenomena. For example, space is an immaterial phenomena.
So what is the difference between the material and the immaterial? They differ in mass. The «mass» quality makes the material phenomena and the immaterial phenomena different. From that point of view, energy and matter are both material substances. Space falls out of that matrix and becomes an independent immaterial substance of the multiverse.
Science is used to easily determine the presence of mass using gravitational and mechanical interactions as indicators . Mass of energy could only be found indirectly via motion, temperature and pressure. For instance, the Theory of Relativity states that with the forward motion velocity increase, mass of an material particles grows. Yes, but at what expense? According to our conception – the answer is simple enough: it happens at the expense of energy folding (absorption) by elementary particles of matter and joining to its own mass. But the science cannot see it. The cause – energy doesn’t have its own elementary particle. Whereas matter has own elementary particle energy hasn’t elementary particles at all. The energy be totally amorphous and homogeneous, and fills all the space of the universe as the so-called “vacuum”. Energy is of much higher density close to physical bodies and inside them. The density of energy falls inversely to the square of the distance to an elementary particle:
P ~ 1/ R2
Energy should be contacting to elementary particle of matter because fundamental laws of the multiverse are defined by interactions of substances on the level of elementary particles. The amount of energy in any body is defined by the amount of matter in it. The more elementary particles in it, the more energy is it its possession:
— or, shall we say, the more the mass of an object, the more energy it has.
Another measure we could employ is velocity: the higher the velocity of a material particle, the higher the energy it has
E ~ W
(same with temperature and pressure). We receive the important quality of interaction between matter and energy: the more elementary particles of matter are in the atom of a chemical element and the higher its speed (or the pressure and temperature of its environment), the more energy has the matter elementary particles of this atom. There is a simple proof to that. Look at the Periodic table: elementary particle quantity growth in atoms of chemical elements coincides with proton and neutron increase in mass.
According to our concept, absolutely all material particles and bodies of the multiverse continuously change their position is space. They move in space. The galaxy constantly moves in space of the universe. This very fact implicates that all elementary particles of the galaxy constantly moves in universe space and share a common direction of forward motion. Even a stone, lying on the ground for ages, move with astonishing speed in galaxy. To be exact, each matter elementary particle of this stone moves in space with mind-boggling velocity.
Now let us imagine that in that process of motion each elementary particle absorbs energy from surrounding space, folds and joins it into mass, increasing the velocity of forward motion. The body mass increases together with the growth in its speed. It’s in full accord with Relativity Theory. If we consider that galaxy continuously increases of forward motion in the space, then mass of absolutely all bodies (from elementary particles to stars) in galaxy also increases. Even the stone lying on a road, grow in mass day by day.
Let us briefly consider basic qualities and characteristics energy should posses
- homogeneity and amorphousness. Energy doesn’t have its own elementary particle as matter has. There are no energy particle at all. Energy is amorphous and homogeneous and fills absolutely whole space of the erse, every nook and cranny.
- Quality of mass. This quality unites energy with matter: matter has the same quality – mass. One could say that matter is energy that came into possession of elementary particle and that energy is matter which lost its elementary particle. This fact: absence or presence of particles makes all the difference
- Motion. Because energy is amorphous and homogeneous, and because it has no own elementary particles that could be affected by mutual attraction, it spreads around trying to reach zero density. It is called diffusion — energy movement from a point of space with the greater density of energy to all sides of space with smaller density of energy.
- Interaction with space. Energy spreads in the universe space until it reaches state of “vacuum”- as it called by science. Vacuum has very low energy density but it is a constant. Energy doesn’t spread infinitely in space – some force holds its spread. Suppose, space has a sell structure. Energy diffuses in space, in series filling (and expanding) these space cells. However, the cells can not expand endlessly, so there is a natural limit of stretching to that. Energy, spreads in the space, at first fills the cells to their normal limit of stretching, then continues to diffuse. Each “loaded” cell becomes inert in respect to the rest of the energy, «trying» to not accept more energy. Here we get two important characteristics of energy:
- Velocity of energy diffusion is space. Space cells limit the speed of energy diffusion. Suppose, space is “condensed” and its cells are empty like deflated balloons. Energy spreads in space, by turn filling the cells. Naturally, the more energy comes into the cell, the greater cell is capable to increase magnitude of its size, the more time is necessary for energy to fill in each cell. If all the cells of the multiverse have similar characteristics, then we receive a constant of energy velocity in space. Easy to guess, the value of this the constant equals the speed of light – top speed of forward motion in the multiverse.
- Dynamic equilibrium of energy density in space. Energy, as it moves in space, fills the cells up to normal limit of stretching. After reaching the limit, it moves further. As a result, we get that “vacuum” of the universe space – lowest quantity of the energy density in the universe. Let us call this quantity the energy density constant of the universe space. It does not mean that energy density in the universe space is unchangeable. The constant means here the state of dynamic equilibrium of energy density in space of the universe.
Let’s take a separate cell of space. If the closest surrounding cells have higher energy density (for example: above the normal limit) our cell necessarily will equalize its density with their density. It will take away from them a part of superfluous energy, stretching its sizes at that. And vice versa: if the energy density of closest surrounding cells are lower, our cell necessarily will gives up a part of the energy, equalize its energy density with their density.
- Interaction with matter by cohesion. Energy and matter are similar in their nature, what it make possible the interaction by cohesion between them. Cohesion is a property of diffusing energy to cause movement of elementary particles of matter, which are caught in its stream, in the direction of its motion. Or, simply, energy streams drag any elementary particles of matter with itself that got into thatJust elementary particles: the interaction between matter and energy happens at the elementary level.
Qualities and properties of matter:
- Quality of mass. It means materiality of the phenomenon. This quality unites matter with energy and makes the cohesion possible.
- Quality of form. Unlike energy, matter is inert to space. The only way it interacted with space was immediately after the Big Bang when from pre-matter monolith elementary particles gets up by the form of string. Thanks to that, matter gained its own elementary particle with concrete spaceAs for any other interactions, space and matter each other are indifferent too.
- Interaction with energy. Matter consists of small structural elements – elementary particles. Every elementary particle interacts with energy independently of other particles. It doesn’t matter whether the particle is singular or is part of material body – a star, for example. This interaction occurs by two major forms:
- Elementary particle of matter absorbs energy from the surrounding space and binds it to itself as mass. During that process, “vacuum” (space without energy) energy occurs in the given point of space. Immediately, energy from the surrounding space fills this “vacuum”, so particle gains a positive impulse of forward motion thanks to cohesion with energy.
- Elementary particle of matter releases bonded energy into space. there 0ccurs the excess of free energy in the given point of space. This energy will immediately diffuse to all sides of space, and the particle itself gains a negative impulse of forward motion thanks to cohesion with energy. The mass of particle decreases on a quantity of this released energy.
- Motion. Property of matter elementary particles to change its position in space thanks to interaction with energy.
- Compression and stretch. This property occurrs as a result of interaction between matter and energy. It means, elementary particle can compress and stretch its body and mass during the process of energy folding (absorbing) and its release into space.
According to our concept, the multiverse is made from four basic substances: matter, energy and space (the fourth substance, which gives us an idealistic picture, will not be considered here). We will take an idea of time in the next articles. Of these three substances — two are material and one is immaterial.
SPACE – objective reality, the fundamental principle of the multiverse, unmaterial substance, where matter exists and evolves together with energy.
ENERGY – objective reality, the fundamental principle of the multiverse, material substance, evolving in space together with matter. Energy causes all changes in the universe.
MATTER – objective reality the fundamental principle of the multiverse, material substance, evolving in the free energy of space. Out of elementary particle, all the different and diverse world of all the universes consists.
Now let us get clear with what is the difference between the universe and the multiverse:
THE MULTIVERSE — a continuum, which constitutes totality of matter, energy, space in all their manifestations. Inside that continuum, all changes, interactions and conversions occur. The multiverse, as men view it, exists and will exist forever.
THE UNIVERSE – a structural unit of the multiverse — spatially confined part of the multierse — where energy and matter go through their own cycle of development, independent of other universes — the big cycle of transformation of a matter and energy.
The multiverse is mainly about space, then energy and matter. Space is all-encompassing “ocean” of the multiverse. Space could not be torn and it is the only substance that fills whole of the multiverse. In this multiverse “small islands” of the universes float.
We recognize the universe, first, as energy. The limits of energy spreading defines the boundaries of the universe. The universe has possession of tremendous, but, ultimately, limited amount of energy. It means there are boundaries of the universe inside the space of the multiverse. Because of that, the universe is more like an island (if we could call it so) of energy in the “ocean” of the multiverse space.
Energy density inside our universe, especially in intergalactic space, is equal to the energy density constant of the universe space. If this constant is violated anywhere in space, all energy on the universe space mobilizes, striving to restore its density constant. The speed of free energy motion equals to the velocity of light. Naturally, with these velocities, a change of energy density will move as an energy perturbation wave countless years from the point of enturbulation to the boundaries of the universe.
The space of the universe is limited by the boundaries of energy spread. Where energy ceases, the universe ends. Between the universes — within the space of the multiverse – there is no energy.
Matter in the universe exists in compactions – galaxies.
GALAXY – is a structural unit of the universe. Boundaries of galaxies are defined by the baundares of the matter spread. Between the galaxies the amount of matter is minuscule.
The space between galaxies is tremendous. The galaxies evolves independently of each other, going through a similar cycle of development – lesser cycle of matter and energy conversion.
We know that, according to the Theory of Relativity, there are so-called “black holes” in the universe, where matter reaches the highest density. Suppose that a black hole is the final stage of galaxy development. In other words, the final stage of galaxy evolution would be the collapse of matter. Matter turns into a super-dense, monolithic state without any space between matter particles. Let us call this state of mater and energy as “pre-matter”.
For example, here is a simple calculation. The Earth radius approximately equals about 6400 km, or about 640.000.000 cm. Gravitational radius of earth, according the Theory of Relativity is about 0.9 cm. That means:
- First, if all matter will be packed into the ball with 0.9 cm radius – and this is possible in theory – the Earth would start collapsing. Collapse is like an explosion, only inside. When it would stop the collapse is unknown. The mass would remain the same meanwhile.
- Second, we are surrounded by an empty space. The existing Earth radius exceeds the gravitational one 22.214.171.124 times! The space between matter particles is seven billons times bigger than particles themselves. The Earth would start collapsing having 0.9 cm radius. That means, the space excess between particles is much greater. Metaphorically speaking, the Earth, packed as pre-matter, could be comfortable seated on the end of a needle.
Pre-matter has neither molecules, nor atoms, nor elementary particles. They actually don’t exist in nature. Pro-matter is a highly-packed monolith of matter and energy that has the highest density in the universe.
According to our proposition that all particles constantly consume energy and constantly increase their speed, we conclude that galaxy constantly increase its speed of motion, moving in the development to the state of a black hole. This state is reached when galaxy’s speed would equal to the speed of light. At that, galaxy collapses, becomes the “monolith” of pre-matter and continues its motions until it reaches the end of the universe. Because there is no energy outside the universe, the speed of monolithic pre-matter falls. Pre-matter explodes in a Big Bang. A new cycle of galaxy evolution begins.
Before we go to look at the cycle of galaxy development, let us consider the processes of galaxy compression.
Astronomers accept Doppler Effect as the main proof that galaxies move away from each other, and as magnificent evidence of the Expanding Universe Hypotheses. This hypothesis is widely accepted and has many facts to support it. Its essential minus is the fact, that it puts our galaxy in the centre of the universe: all galaxies, according to the given hypothesis, run away from us. It is certainly pleasant to be the navel of the universe, but chances are insignificant: one of many billions, by quantity of galaxies in our universe. This very minus makes the Expanding Universe Hypothesis very unlikely. Besides there is a number of galaxies which “do not think” to move away from us.
It is amazing, one important fact is remains unseen by the scientific community – the red shift could also be observed in case the galaxy is compressing. Let even other galaxies are moving to us, with the speed lower than the speed of our galaxy compressing. In any case, we are going to observe the red shift in their spectrum.
Elementary particles of matter, moving inside the space of the universe, constantly consume (absorb) energy. As a result of these actions simultaneously by all elementary particles of the galaxy matter, energy in the galaxy space quickly disappears. According to the laws of energy diffusion, the disappearing energy is compensated by the energy flows from outside. We receive the powerful directed streams of energy, as a whole the directed to the galaxy centre. These streams drag, due to cohesion, all elementary particles of the matter of the galaxy in a direction to the galaxy centre. The galaxy space compression occurs at that: distances among elementary particles constantly become smaller.
For an observer from any planet of our galaxy, the space compression process would appear as Doppler Effect. In fact, his galaxy is indeed shrinks and other galaxies are keeping moving away from it with the speed of the galaxy shrinking.
The galaxy compression gives the same red shift. The space compression of our galaxy gives the same shift to the red side in spectra of other galaxies, as if they move away from us.
By this position, and from those particles of knowledge that the astronomy gives us, the following picture of a cycle of development of a galaxy appears.
The galaxy cycle starts with a Big Bang of galaxy pre-matter and has five stages:
- Big Bang stage.
- Primordial chaos stage.
- Dynamic galaxy stage:
- Hydrogen nebula phase.
- Gaseous nebula phase.
- Gas-dust nebula phase.
- Star phase.
- Destruction phase.
- Quasar phase.
- Black hole stage.
- Pre-matter stage.
It is difficult to speak of the universe compression or universe expansion. We have too little information for that. All universe energy circulates inside the space of the universe in a process of going through small cycles of energy and matter conversion by its galaxies.
Let us give short characteristics to the stages of galaxy evolution.
- Big Bang stage. Galaxy, once it reaches the boundaries of the universe, explodes. At that, the pre-matter monolith breaks apart completely into elementary particles. During Big Bang, a half (!) of all energy is released. This energy was bound by elementary particles in the previous cycle of galaxyA firework gets grandiose.
- Primordial chaos stage. During this stage, every elementary particle of matter releases the remaining half of energy. At that, their velocity of forward motion decreases to minimum. The released energy diffuses in space, increasing the space of the universe. Elementary particles of matter fly away from each other to the maximum distance, forming the space of the galaxy. The galaxy only emits in radio waves band at this stage, so it could only be observed as a black nebula. At this stage, a galaxy slows down in its forward motions to minimum (not equal to zero), and gains its size to the maximum degree.
- Dynamic stage.The speed of forward motion grows until it reaches the speed of light. It happens due to the energy absorbing by the elementary particles of matter. The space among the particles becomes smaller. As a result, the galaxy shrinks. There are six phases to this stage:
- Hydrogen nebula phase. It starts when density of the released energy of the galaxy is equal to the space density of the universe (when it reaches the state of dynamic equilibrium of energy density in space). The speed of the galaxy forward motion is minimal. All elementary particles become to fold energy and convert into their mass. Galaxy moves ahead in a singular motion. The space among the particles decreases and a galaxy starts to shrink. At this phase, every elementary particle represents a proton, or protium – a hydrogen atom. The galaxy could be observed only as black nebulae at this stage.
- Gaseous nebula phase. It starts from the moment, when same of particles get as close as possible. As a result, they enter at direct contact, and dual structures – made out of two elementary particles – come into existence. These are deuterium atoms (this structure is mistaken called by science proton – neutron combination). At the end of gaseous nebula phase, some dual structures unit into helium atoms. During this stage galaxy consists of atoms of protium, deuterium, and helium.
- Gas-dust nebula phase. The speed of the galaxy forward motion continues growing, but its space decreases in size. The first proto-condensing of matter are formed and quickly grow. They should become stars and planets in the future. The spirals form of the galaxy springs up. In those proto-condensing the above-mentioned dual structures start actively interacting, turning into helium and other simple chemical elements of the periodical table. First chemical compounds come into existence.
- Star phase. Proto-condensing of matter increase to the degree, that elementary particles of a matter, atoms of hydrogen, helium etc. approach up to distances, when processes of star and planet-forming become possible. Stars and planets are forming. It starts from the galaxy center and spreads to galaxies’ peripheries. The galaxy gets their characteristic spiral shapes. The stars and planets pass the most part of its evolutionary cycle in the star phase.
- Destruction phase. It starts when processes of galaxy compression reach the size necessary for beginning of large scale catastrophic events. First, planets one by one are consumed by their stars; then the stars impingement of each other begins.
- Quasar phase. This phase is beginning when no stars remain in galaxy. Galaxy represents the extremely enturbulated, super-small (thanks to compression processes) cloud of “boiling” matter. Speed of the galaxy is commensurable to that of light.
- Black hole stage. The galactic velocity of forward motion is reached the speed of light. Galactic boundaries have reached their gravitational radius. Galaxy enters the state of a black hole and collapses swiftly. All the galaxies matter and energy becomes the pre-matter.
- Pre-matter stage. Galaxy, as the monolith of pre-matter, flies in space at the speed of light, until it reaches the end of the universe.
Surely, this point of view on matter and energy looks very much like Ether Theory;
But – no!
The substance we deal here with – energy – is vastly different from the ether:
The structure is unclear.
The structure is amorphous, has qualities of mass that makes it similar to matter and, in fact, makes it material.
The inert substance having no direct interaction with matter and space.
The material substance actively interacting with space and matter.
Continuously moves with the speed of light in all directions of space where its density is less.
Possesses a single function – to work as medium for matter particles and bodies interaction.
Energy is bound up by elementary particles of matter, gives it a momentum of speed, increases the mass; when energy is released, particles gain a negative forward motion and the mass decreases correspondingly.
Although the Ether theory has proven itself not to be quite false, Maxwell came up with laws of electro dynamics while being an adept of Ether theory.
Despite the outward similarities, our concept of the multiverse is radically not the same as theory of Ether. As we will see further, our interpretation of energy combines all physical fields — without which modern physics would be unthinkable – into a single space–energy continuum. In this continuum absolutely all interactions of matter and energy occur.
Let us recall formulas of Newton and Coulomb – two amazingly similar mathematical expressions that describe two entirely different phenomena: gravity and electricity.
F = g×m1×m2 /r2
F = k×q1×q2 / r2
To our understanding, this similarity shows the unity between laws that govern these apparently different phenomena. The laws of electromagnetic and gravitational interaction are the same. This is truly so: very simple laws of matter and energy interaction rules all the interactions of material particles and bodies. We have already partially reviewed these laws. There are two chief ways matter interacts with energy: when energy is bound by matter and when it is released. All material interactions in the universe are in that framework:
Weak interactions at subatomic level are also occurring because of the same principle (later we will see that this “weak” force has to do with nuclear or electrical interactions). According to our concept, in reality, there are no physical fields of interaction in nature: neither gravitational, nor nuclear, nor electromagnetic, etc, etc. Only space-energy continuum exists, where the evolution of matter occurs.