Atomic structure of material bodies.
According to the modern physics data, the entire material world consists of three main elementary particles: proton, neutron and electron. Except these ones, there are many other “elementary” particles of matter under various names. Their function in the universe development and in its existence and evolution is absolutely vague.
We have an alternative approach here. There exists only one elementary particle of matter and that is elementary particle of matter and that is proton. All the other “elementary particles” including neutron and electron are just its derivatives. And their role in the universe evolution is only insignificant. Nevertheless let us see the way they are being formed.
The elementary particle quality to stretch in space theoretically means the matter density can probably decrease up to a zero point. In its turn it means that the particle can be broken mechanically. This breaking point of the elementary particle can be understood as the place with zero matter density.
During the annihilation process and energy absorption, the elementary particle constantly increases its forward motion velocity in space. At that, its front part continuously shortens and its density increases. So, presently, the front part of the elementary particle becomes thickened and shortened, and represents chain of hyperactive matter quanta. If more pressure of tear up is applied, the break takes place right there: on the junction point between the hyperactive and non-active quanta of the elementary particle.
Gradually, during the galaxy evolution, the elementary particles of matter reach the velocity of forward motion, when they acquire the ability of a breaking influence on each other. The particles do not necessarily meet with each other at the parallel trajectories, where one particle come to the other in a slow and smooth way. They can meet in the counter directions. In that case, the collision and the following break of the elementary particle is unavoidable. They can also be exposed to the impact of the powerful wave of energy that also leads to breaks.
The question is what kind of “debris” is formed after the fission of the elementary particle? Let us take the case when after the external influence, an atom of deuterium — the double structure of two elementary matter particles — falls into proton and neutron. The break of this double structure happens not at the place of their connection, which is the common annihilation point. Only one of two elementary particles of matter is being broken.
Proton and neutron are different in their structures. After the break, proton represents a shortened elementary particle. Neutron in its turn is the structure including one full elementary particle and the light front part of the first particle. The full elementary particle has a full set of «N» matter quanta in its structure. After the break, proton gets «N-n» matter quanta. Neutron, in its turn, gets «N+n» quanta.
Even after losing the terminal matter quanta, proton keeps on annihilating energy. The matter density of its new end quantum always answers the annihilation conditions. This new end quantum of a matter becomes a new annihilation point. On the whole the proton behaves oneself as one should. The proton properties are well described in any textbook of physics. Only it become a little lighter than its full-fledged “counter-part” – the full elementary particle of a matter.
Neutron behaves in a quite different way. First of all, let us consider neutron’s structure in order to understand its” strangenesses”.
Neutron consists of two parts. The first part of it is a full elementary matter particle with the annihilation point at its front end. Its second part is a very shortened light piece of the first elementary particle, remained after the double structure break, having its own annihilation point. These two parts are joined together by their annihilation points as well. That is why neutron has a double annihilation point.
Due to the structure of neutron it is possible to guess that its two uneven parts behave in a different way. The first part of neutron, as a full elementary particle, should annihilates free energy and gradually increase its velocity in the universe space. The second — light part – becomes absorb free energy in a quicker tempo.
The elementary particle motion in the universe is due to the cohesion of energy and matter when the diffusing energy drags the particle being caught in its energy flows. It’s clear that the less massive the matter particle is, the easier it is for energy flows to drag this particle with them, and the higher the particle velocity is. And it’s obvious that the more energy the active quantum absorbs simultaneously, the more powerful the flows of the diffusing energy get and the easier it is for them to drag that particle. So we get the following dependence: the velocity of the particle’s forward motion in space is proportional to the matter mass of the active quantum and inversely proportional whole mass of the elementary matter particle:
W ~ m/M
Neutron’s second light part has the mass which is much smaller than that of the full elementary particle of matter – first neutrons part. But their active quanta masses are equal. It means that they absorb energy at one and the same pace. So the velocity of the forward motion of the second neutron’s particle tends to increase and it starts annihilating energy more quickly.
(In order to avoid any kind of confusion, let’s call the second light part of neutron — electron.)
While the electron is inside the neutron, the annihilated energy quantity starts increasing sharply. That leads to the neutron’s inertia.
Due to its light mass, electron starts annihilating more energy, than the full elementary particle — its “neighbor”. It can’t break away from the neutron’s common annihilation point. So far the thing is that strong gravitation forces prevent it. As a result, electron starts absorb the compaction energy behind the common annihilation point.
Simultaneously, electron starts displacement in the relation to its neighbor. So its free energy compaction occurs in the zone of annihilation point of its neighbor. The latter immediately begins absorb this compaction. Such a shift of the electron and the full particle to the “inner” resources, that is free energy compaction behind the annihilation point leads to the abrupt weakening of the neutron’s gravitation and repulsion forces.
Electron’s breaking away from the neutron’s whole structure takes place at the moment when electron’s displacement in the relation to the full elementary particle gets big enough. The force, striving to break the gravitation links of two annihilation points starts to exceed the gravitation force of these annihilation points. And the neutron’s second light part (electron) quickly flies away. As a result, the neutron splits into two parts: the full elementary particle — proton and the light shortened part of the elementary particle that is electron.
According to the contemporary data the individual neutron’s structure exists for about fifteen minutes. Then it spontaneously falls into proton and electron. This fifteen minutes’ period is actually the period of electron’s displacement in the relation to the neutron’s common annihilation point and the period of electron’s struggle for its «freedom».
So let us make some corollaries:
- PROTON is a full elementary particle of matter that has just one point of annihilation, or is a heavy part of an elementary particle of matter after the lighter quanta – electron – broke away from it.
- NEUTRON is a double structure with two annihilation points, which consists of the full elementary matter particle and the light front part of the second elementary matter particle.
- ELECTRON is the front part of the elementary matter particle that has one point of annihilation and is made of light quanta, which was formed as a result of a full elementary particle of matter split.
- The «proton – neutron» structure, accepted in science, is actually deuterium atom, — the structure make of two elementary particles, having double annihilation point.
Electron is not an independent elementary particle revolving around the atom nucleus. Electron, as science thinks about, is not present in the atom structure. And the atom’s nucleus doesn’t exist in the nature as such, as well as neutron does not exist as independent elementary particle of matter.
Both electron and neutron are derivatives from the double structure of two elementary particles after its breaking into two unequal parts. An atom of any chemical element has proton and neutron – all together represented as a standard double structure. This double structure really consists of two elementary matter particles, — two protons joined together by the annihilation points.
There is an unshakable tenet in modern physics that proton and electron have equal but opposite electric charges. Allegedly they get gravitated to each other due to interaction of this opposite charges. It seems to be quite a logical explanation. It correctly reflects the mechanism of the phenomenon but not its essence. Elementary particles of matter do not have either positive or negative “electric” charges. As well as does not exist such a matter substance as the electric field. Such “electricity” is just a fiction of human’s mind, arising out of his inability to explain an existing state of things.
The “electric” attraction between proton and electron is actually formed by the energy flows directed to their annihilation points. As the result of this annihilation points motion in the the universe space. It really looks as the interaction of two equal in size but opposite electric charges.
The repulsion of two “similar electric charges” such as two protons or two electrons has another explanation too. Such the repulsion takes place when one of the particles gets into the zone of repulsion forces of the other particle – into the zone of energy compaction behind its annihilation point. It was presented the previous article.
Such interactions as “proton-antiproton”, “electron-positron” also have another explanation. It is the interaction of two protons or two electrons when they move at the colliding courses. In this case due to their interaction only by attraction a direct contact takes place. There is no repulsion here as the repulsion zone of each of the particle is behind it. As a result, instead of two protons (electrons) we get quite different “elementary particles”, which are actually derivatives of the drastic interaction between these two protons (electrons).
Atomic structure of substances.
Now let us get to the atom’s structure. As it was mentioned before, such elementary particles as neutron and electron do not exist. Correspondently there is no such a notion as atom’s nucleus as well as the electron shell. This fallacy is the greatest obstacle on the way of the matter’s structure further investigation
The only elementary matter particle is proton. An atom of any chemical element consists of double structures out of two elementary matter particles (except the isotopes, where to the double structure more elementary particles are added as well.)
Thus in order to understand the essence of further explanation, it is necessary to explain what is the common annihilation point. The thing is that all elementary particles interact between each other by their annihilation points. The result of this interaction is formation of material structures: atoms, molecules, physical bodies, etc. All these structures have a common annihilation point: atom’s common annihilation point, common annihilation point of a molecule, common annihilation point of a physical body…
The common annihilation point is the uniting of two elementary particles annihilation points into one common annihilation point of a double structure; or the uniting of annihilation points of the double structures into a common annihilation point of the chemical elements atom; or the uniting of the common annihilation points of the chemical elements atoms – into a common annihilation point of a molecule. What is important here is that this combination of the matter particles (atoms, molecules…) acts both by attraction and repulsion as a single monolithic object.
In the long run, even any physical body can be presented as a common annihilation point of the very body. This physical body attracts (repulses) other physical bodies like a single monolithic physical object as a single annihilation point. In this case the gravity forces between the physical bodies takes place.
At the stage of gas and dust nebula, when the attraction forces of the double structures became big enough, the deuterium atoms start uniting into the structures of other atoms. Atoms of the chemical elements are formes consecutively, by the increase the velocity of forward motion of elementary particles of matter (read: the increase in velocity of galaxy forward motion in the space of the universe) by means of joining new double structures of the elementary particles of matter to deuterium atom. This process of joining together is done consecutively: in each new atom there appears one new double structure made of elementary particles of matter (and rarely – by individual elementary particle).
What do we get as the outcome of this unification?
- Joining of the double structures into the atom’s structure that lead to appearance of the common atom annihilation point. This means that the atom will interact with other atoms both by attraction and repulsion forces as a full single structure.
- Atom’s space appearance. The free energy density inside the atom gets much more bigger than that outside it. Very high energy density behind the annihilation point inside the atom won’t fall quickly, as the distances between the elementary particles are very short. The average density of free energy in the intra-atomic space is much higher than the density constant of the universe space free energy.
In the formation process of different chemical elements’ atoms, as well as the chemical substances molecules and physical bodies there arises the most important law of material particles and bodies’ interaction: the force of intra-nuclear, chemical, electrical and the gravitation links depends on the distance between the annihilation points inside the atom, between the atom common annihilation points inside molecules, between molecules common annihilation points inside the physical bodies, between physical bodies. So the less the distance between the common annihilation point is, the more powerful forces of attraction exist between them.
It’s obvious that:
- For the intra-nuclear links we actually mean the interactions between the elementary particles and between double structures inside atoms;
- For the chemical links we mean interactions between the atoms in the molecule structure;
- For the electrical links we mean the interactions between molecules inside the physical bodies;
- And finally for the gravitation links here we mean the interactions between the physical bodies.
The formation of the helium atom, the second chemical element, takes place when the galaxy acquires the high enough velocity during its motion, when the attraction forces of the deuterium atoms increase to such a degree, that the process of joining double structures the helium’s atom structure of four elementary particles will occur.
The further velocity increasing of the galaxy forward motion leads to the atoms’ formation of the elements following after the helium. For atoms formation of any consequent chemical element there is its own strictly definite velocity of galaxy forward motion in the universe space . Let it be called the standard velocity of the chemical element atom formation.
Helium’s atom was formed second after hydrogen in galaxy. Later on, as the velocity of the galaxy’s forward motion was increasing, the atom of the next chemical element – lithium – was formed. It means that the velocity of the galaxy’s forward motion has just reached the standard velocity of the lithium atom formation. Later it reaches up the standard velocity formation of the atom beryllium, later – carbon… The same takes place with the atoms of the following chemical elements according to the Periodic Table.
In the same the scheme we see that:
- Each period in the atom’s structure is a ring made of double structures.
- The atom’s center is always taken by the quadruple structure of helium atom .
- The atom has a flat structure.
- The distances between the periods are much bigger than the distances between doubled structures inside one period.
The scheme represented above is only a simplified variant and it does not show all the principles of atoms’ formation. For instance every new double structure when it joins the atom shifts the geometric centre of the common annihilation point of the atom.
So we get the following principle of the period formation around the geometric centre represented in a form of a ring:
- The period’s structure is formed at one plane. It happens under the influence of united forward motion vector of all elementary particles of the galaxy.
- Double structures of one period are formed around the atom geometric centre at an equal distance.
- The atom, around which a new period is formed, relate to that new period as a unified whole system.
Here we get the most important rule of chemical elements atoms’ formation – The Law of the Double Structures Strictly Definite Number. According to this law, simultaneously only the definite number of double structures of the elementary matter particles can be found at the definite distance from the geometric centre of the atom’s common annihilation point.
That means that the second and third periods of the Periodic Table includes only eight elements, the forth and the fifth have eighteen elements, sixth and the seventh have thirty two elements. An increasing atom diameter leads to the increase of the double structures number in every subsequent period. Obviously this law governs the elements atoms formation periodicity principle, discovered by Dmitry Mendeleev.
Each period behaves as a unified whole system with regard to the atom of the element the part of which it is. This can be explained by the distance jumps between periods, which are much bigger than the distances between double structures within one period.
This significant difference between the distances among the periods and the distances within one period explains the chemical activity of the atoms with partial period. Partial period creates asymmetry of attraction and repulsion forces: definite sectors of the atom obtain greater attraction force than the others.
After the last double structure had already joined, the asymmetry disappears and a new period obtains the form of the regular circle, becomes a unified whole completed system. And as a result we get the inert gas atom.
The most important factor of atom’s structure formation is that an atom has a flat and cascade structure. It means: atom’s double structures of one period are situated at one plane, that is perpendicular to the vector of the atom forward motion. At the same time, periods in atoms structure must be situated as a cascade. This explains why in the second and third periods (as in fourth and fifth, sixth and seventh) have the same amount of doubled structures (see the figure below). Such an atom structure is a consequence of the gravitation and repulsion forces’ distribution of elementary particle. The gravitation forces act in the frontal semisphere of the particle (along the motion); repulsion forces – at the back semisphere. Otherwise, compactions of free energy behind the common points of annihilation of doubled structures get into the zones of attraction of other double structures common points of annihilation. And inevitably, atom will break apart.
Amount of energy in the compaction behind the point of annihilation constantly grows, as this formula clearly shows:
E1 ~ m×(C + W) / 2
Е2 ~ m×(C – W) / 2
ΔE = Е1 – Е2 ~ m×(C + W) / 2 — m×(C – W) / 2
ΔE ~ W×m
Е1 — amount of free energy, absorbed by the point of annihilation at the frontal motion semisphere.
Е2 — amount of free energy absorbed by the point of annihilation at the back motion semisphere.
ΔE — the difference between the amount of free energy absorbed at the frontal and back semispheres of elementary particles’ motion.
m = the mass of the active quantum matter.
W = the active quantum motion velocity.
Here we see the continuous growth of the mass of the energy compaction behind the annihilation point of the moving particle. That is — the constantly growing force of repulsion. This does not mean that the distances between elementary particles and distances between pair structures will increase. The points of annihilation by their own force of attraction hold each other firmly. At the same time, the repulsion force increasing will increasingly cause mutual rejection of pair structure of the atom. So we get a flat and cascade structure of the atom.
Atom, in its form, should resemble the form of a bowl, where the «bottom» is the structure of the helium atom. And «edges» of a bowl is the last period. The curves of the «bowl»: the second — third, fourth — fifth, sixth — seventh periods; and these “curves” allow atoms to form different periods with an equal number of pair structures.
It is a flat and cascade structure of atom and the circular distribution of double structures in it, determine the periodicity regularity of Mendeleev’s periodic system.
Atom‘s flat and cascade structure provides the appearance of the atom’s unified single space with high density of free energy. All individual points of annihilation are located along the rings of periods inside the atom. All the individual compactions of free energy are located behind the annihilation points of an atom. As a result: appearance the atom’s unified space, where energy has high density. These borders are the atom borders and are obviously the influence borders of the forces known in a science as Yukawa forces.In contrast to atoms, a molecule — is a dimensional structure. Flat and cascade form of atoms forms three-dimensional structures of molecules. Above all atoms in molecule must have the pooled vector of this molecule forward motion. The forces of repulsion of atoms will not allow them to get too close to each other. At the same time: energy flow directed into a molecule, plus a single motion vector of the molecule in the space of the universe, does not give a molecule chance to disintegrate or collapse. Molecule is a stable three-dimensional structure made of atoms.